Guide to the African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh Oral History Project Records and Recordings, 1995-1999 AIS.1998.04

ULS Archives & Special Collections

Summary Information

Repository
ULS Archives & Special Collections
Title
African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh Oral History Project Records and Recordings
Creator
Afro-American Musical Association of Pittsburgh.
Collection Number
AIS.1998.04
Date
1995-1999
Extent
72.0 cassette tapes (plus 4 mss boxes)
Abstract
This oral history collection consists of transcripts, cassette tapes, project working files and background organizational records of the interviews conducted during the African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh (AAJPSP) Oral History Project (1995-1999). The project documents individual African American Jazz Musicians in Pittsburgh as well as their efforts to organize. The content of the interviews span from 1904 to 1999.

Preferred Citation

African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh Oral History Project, 1995-1999, AIS.1998.04, Archives & Special Collections, University of Pittsburgh Library System

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History

The Pittsburgh African American Musicians' Association was incorporated as a non-profit organization in Allegheny County, Court of Common Pleas 1906. In 1908, the American Federation of Labor granted Black musicians in Pittsburgh a charter to form Local 471 of the American Federation of Musicians (AFM), also known as the Musicians Protective Union. In 1965, as a result of the new ALF-CIO desegregation policy, Local 471 was merged with AFM Local 60 to form AFM Local 60-471, also known as the Pittsburgh Musical Society and then later as the Pittsburgh Musicians Union.

Local 471 was located in a club on Wylie Avenue in the Hill District of Pittsburgh. The club had offices on the first floor, with a piano bar and rehearsal space on the second floor. The club was a popular gathering place for musicians, both local and national, offering a congenial atmosphere for rehearsing and jamming. The organization was a powerful force in the development of community in the city's African American neighborhoods and the securing of economic and educational opportunities for local musicians and bands. Union members played in theaters, clubs, restaurants, ice follies, vaudeville acts, touring companies, churches and concert halls throughout Pittsburgh, the continental U.S., Western Europe, Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean.

When the Civic Arena was built in the mid-1950s, much of the lower Hill District of Pittsburgh was torn down, including the musicians' club, forcing the union to move temporarily to a storefront on Centre Avenue in East Liberty. More permanently the union found space in a former bar on the corner of Enterprise and Frankstown Avenues, also in East Liberty. Due to financial difficulties in the late fifties, the local moved yet again, this time to a bar owned by Joe Westray, then president of the local. They remained at this location until 1965.

The presidents of Local 471 were elected by the members for a two year term, with no limit to the number of terms a president could serve. Records of the names of earlier presidents have been lost. The earliest known president was Hence "Prez" Jackson from the early thirties to the mid-forties at which point Stoney Gloster served until 1954. In 1954 Carl Arter served until 1958 when Joe Westray became president and filled that office until the merge deposed him in 1965. He became one of the three representatives from 471 to serve on the board of the merged local, along with Carl Arter and Rubye Younge Hardy.

The merge was prompted by the American Federation of Musicians integration policy of that time. Pittsburgh could no longer operate two locals, separated on the basis of race. The merger appears to have cost the African American union members much of their autonomy. Leadership positions remained for the most part in the hands of the white musicians. Many of 471's membership cards and records were also lost with the merger costing a great number of the members' benefits from their seniority in the union. It was at this point many African American musicians cancelled their membership in the union, which meant that they could no longer play music professionally in Pittsburgh.

History of the African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh

The African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh was incorporated in 1996 after a group of Pittsburgh's senior African American Jazz, Blues and Gospel musicians formed a committee to look into the recovery of the lost history of Local 471. Under the leadership of Charles E. Austin the society's main direction has been towards the oral history project and in filing a discrimination civil action suit. The society publishes Jazz Notes, which has been a forum for education, opportunity and rediscovery of the former union's history.

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Scope and Content Notes

This oral history collection consists of transcripts, cassette tapes, project working files and background organizational records of the interviews conducted during the AAJPSP Oral History Project. The AAJPSP Oral History Project documents individual African American Jazz Musicians in Pittsburgh as well as their efforts to organize. The content of the interviews span from 1904 to 1999.

The project conducted by volunteers was an effort to document and preserve the cultural, economic, social and educational contributions of the union, from the perspectives of the African American Jazz, Blues, and Gospel artists who organized, operated and benefited from its programs and activities. Volunteer musicians interviewed former members of the union throughout the Pittsburgh region.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

ULS Archives & Special Collections, March 2002

University of Pittsburgh Library System
Archives & Special Collections
Website: library.pitt.edu/archives-special-collections
412-648-3232 (ASC) | 412-648-8190 (Hillman)
Contact Us: www.library.pitt.edu/ask-archivist

Revision Description

  December 2012

Access Restrictions

No restrictions.

Copyright

The University of Pittsburgh holds the property rights to the material in this collection, but the copyright may still be held by the original creator/author. Researchers are therefore advised to follow the regulations set forth in the U.S. Copyright Code when publishing, quoting, or reproducing material from this collection without the consent of the creator/author or that go beyond what is allowed by fair use.

Acquisition Information

Gift of Charles E. Austin, President (AAJPSP), 1998.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Matthew Eidson in March 15, 2002. Revision and rearrangement for the encoded version of the finding aid provided by Jaimie George in June 1, 2005. Abstracts for each interview were compiled and written by Kristen Painter in January-March 2010.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Afro-American Musical Association of Pittsburgh.
  • American Federation of Musicians. Local 471 (Pittsburgh, Pa).
  • American Federation of Musicians. Local 60 (Pittsburgh, Pa).
  • American Federation of Musicians. Local 60-471 (Pittsburgh, Pa).
  • Musicians Protective Union (Pittsburgh, Pa.).
  • Pittsburgh Musical Society.
  • Pittsburgh Musicians' Union.

Genre(s)

  • Audiotapes
  • Releases
  • Transcripts

Geographic Name(s)

  • Pittsburgh (Pa.) -- Race relations

Personal Name(s)

  • Aarons, Al, 1932-
  • Arter, Carl, 1918-2006
  • Austin, Charles E.
  • Austin, Wilbert
  • Barnett, David K., 1918-
  • Betters, Harold
  • Betters, Jerry
  • Boswell, Robert
  • Brooks, Alyce
  • Brooks, Cecil, II, 1928-
  • Burns, William N.
  • Cook, Adolph D.
  • Cotton, William W. , 1922-
  • Cottrell, Charles
  • Dunn, Nathaniel
  • Elliott, Jerry
  • Fisher, Kenny, 1940-
  • Gambrell, Bill
  • Harper, Walt
  • Harris, Joe, 1926-
  • Harris,, Joseph, 1928-
  • Henderson, Pete, 1927-
  • Hill, Hermon J., 1921-
  • Holt, Harold K., 1916-
  • Hughes, John, 1924-
  • Humphries, Lawrence G., 1927-
  • Humphries, Roger
  • Jones, Roy E. , 1928-
  • Kelly, Marcus L.
  • Kemp, Jesse
  • Kennedy, Joe, violinist
  • Laley, Daniel, 1926-
  • Lee, David, 1928-
  • Lee, Harold W., 1926-
  • McCown, Frank
  • McDaniel, Thomas, T., 1940-
  • McKay, Delsey
  • McMahan, Bass
  • Moody, Willis T., 1922-
  • Murphy, Carl, 1936-
  • Nance, Art, 1934-
  • Nelson, Frank, African American jazz musician
  • Odum, Joseph G.
  • Patton, Joseph, 1926-
  • Payne, James H.
  • Pryor, Fred, 1932-
  • Smith, Thames Eldridge
  • Spaulding, George H.
  • Steath, Oliver C.
  • Thomas, John, African American jazz musician
  • Thompson, George, 1923-
  • Turrentine, Stanley
  • Watson, J. Warren, 1923-
  • Webster, Robin, 1923-
  • Westray, Joe
  • Young, Curtis
  • Younge-Hardy, Rubye, 1923-

Subject(s)

  • African American jazz musicians -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • African American musicians -- Labor unions -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • African American musicians -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh -- Biography
  • African Americans -- Segregation -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh -- History
  • Ethnic groups
  • Jazz -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh -- History and criticism
  • Labor
  • Music
  • Musicians
  • Societies

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Previous Citation

African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh Oral History Project, 1995-1999, AIS.1998.04, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

African American Jazz Preservation Society of Pittsburgh Oral History Project, 1995-1999, UE 98:4, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

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Collection Inventory

Series  I. Interviews, 1995-1999 

Scope and Content Notes

The audio cassettes are arranged alphabetically.

  Audio-cabinetCassette
Aarons, Al- November 27, 1999 3-31
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Arter, Carl- October 5, 1995 3-32
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Austin, Charles E.- August 2, 1995 3-33
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Austin, Will- July 15, 1997 3-34
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Barnett, David- March 13, 1997 3-35
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Betters, Harold- March 22, 1996 3-36
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Betters, Jerry- July 1-2, 1997 3-37, 8
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Boswell, Bobby- April 22, 1996 3-39
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Brooks, Alyce- June 24, 1997 3-310
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Brooks, Cecil II- October 24, 1995 3-311
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Burns, Bill- July 29, 1998 3-312
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Cook, Adolph D.- August 12, 1998 3-313
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Cotton, Bill- February 29, 1996 3-314
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Cottrell, Chuck- January 29, 1997 3-315, 16
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Dunn, Nathaniel (Tinky)- September 19, 1997 3-317
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Elliott, Jerry- July 25, 1997 3-318
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Fisher, Kenny- July 28, 1997 3-319
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Gambrell, Jacques "Bill"- May 8, 1995 3-320
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Hardy, Rubye Younge- December 10, 1996 3-321
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Harper, Walt- July 21, 1997 3-322
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Harris, Joe, 1926- December 6, 1995 3-323
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Harris, Joseph Jr. 1928- August 7, 1998 3-324
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Henderson, Pete- March 8, 1998 3-325
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Hill, Herman- September 23, 1997 3-326
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Holt, Harold K.- February 13, 1996 3-327, 28
("Holt, Harold K.-" online pending)
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Hughes, John 3-329, 30
 April 14, 1996 April 14, 1996
 May 25, 1996 May 25, 1996
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Humphries, Lawrence- July 8, 1997 3-331
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Humphries, Roger- August 8, 1998 3-332
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Jones, Roy- March 12, 1998 3-333
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Kelly, Marcus- April 16, 1996 3-334
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Kemp, Jesse- December 15, 1997 3-335
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Kennedy, Joe Jr.- September 1998 3-336
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Laley, Dan- November 2, 1996 3-537, 38
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Lee, Dave- March 6, 1998 3-539
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Lee, Harold- July 3, 1997 3-540
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
McCown, Frank- July 16, 1997 3-541
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
McDaniel, Tommy- March 9, 1998 3-542
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
McKay, Delsey- March 31, 1997 3-543, 44
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
McMahon, William "Bass"- August 24, 1995 3-545
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Moody, Willis- August 22, 1997 3-546
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Murphy, Carl    "Tape is completely blank." 3-547
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Nance, Art- October 5, 1998 3-548
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Nelson, Frank- July 26, 1998 3-549
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Odum, Joe- September 17, 1997 3-550
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Patton, Joe- July 25, 1998 3-551
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Payne, James- July 31, 1998 3-552
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Pryor, Fred- July 29, 1997 3-553
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Smith, Eldridge- July 10, 1997 3-554
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Spaulding, George Duke 3-555, 56
 June 28, 1995 ("June 28, 1995" online pending)
 October 2, 1997 October 2, 1997
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Steath, Ollie- July 19, 1997 3-557
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Thomas, John- May 27, 1997 3-558
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Thompson, George 3-559, 60
 Feburary 23, 1996 Feburary 23, 1996
 December 3, 1997 December 3, 1997
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Turrentine, Stanley- November 23, 1997 3-561
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Watson, Judge Warren- February 10, 1997 3-562
("Watson, Judge Warren-" online pending)
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Webster, Robin- September 25, 1997 3-563
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassette
Westray, Joe- November 13, 1997 3-564
Online
  Audio-cabinetCassettes
Young, Curtis 3-565-72
 June 9, 1995 June 9, 1995
 August 25, 1995 August 25, 1995
 September 20, 1995 September 20, 1995
 Feburary 19, 1996 Feburary 19, 1996
 March 29, 1996 March 29, 1996
 June 17, 1997 June 17, 1997
 August 13, 1997 August 13, 1997
 November 28, 1997 November 28, 1997

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Series  II. Transcripts, 1995-1999 

  BoxFolder
Aaron, Al interviewed by Charles E. Austin, November 27, 1999 11

Aarons, Albert, a trumpet player who performed in Pittsburgh and recorded music in California.

[T1S1] Beginning music; joining Local 471; musical inspiration; Army; racism; day jobs; jazz band in high school; big bands; Local 471 politics; advice to younger musicians; recording in California; advice for studio recording.

  Folder
Arter, Carl interviewed by Charles E. Austin, October 5, 1995 2

Arter, Carl, a saxophone and piano player who performed in Pittsburgh and was a Local 471 President.

[T1S1] Pittsburgh bands; racism in Oklahoma; MGM contract; dance hall; intimidation of New York City; Silvertones; other musicians; Nate Harper’s band; transcription jobs.

[T1S2] Other musicians; touring; record shop and recording studio; reuniting with old musician friends; family and music; childhood and beginning piano; day jobs; relationships with other musicians; Jazz Beat Show.

  Folder
Austin, Charles E. interviewed by Cathy Cairns, August 2, 1995 3

Austin, Charles E., a trumpeter who toured with Lloyd Price, his own band in Pittsburgh, and stayed involved with the Musicians’ Union after the merger.

[T1S1] Childhood and music; high school band; Navy; Union camaraderie; Carnival; studying music; touring with Lloyd Price; competition between bands; Chuck Austin Quintet; rehearsal bands; childhood inspiration; reading music; merger and pensions; old Musicians’ Club.

[T1S2] Jam sessions; club associate members; advice to younger musicians; influence on younger musicians; importance of rehearsal bands and reading music; changes in music business; effect of recordings.

  Folder
Austin, Wilbert interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 15, 1997 4

Austin, Will, a trumpeter who played for the National Guard for six years, played and composed music in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Junior and high school musical career; National Guard; studying and writing music; National Guard; studying music; Union; musical composition and recordings; Union and Musicians’ Club; studying music; different horn models and quality.

[T1S2] New Years performances; work and pensions; performing with other musicians; advice for younger musicians.

  Folder
Barnett, David interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 13, 1997 5

Barnett, David, a trumpet and baritone horn player who was a bandleader and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Local 471 history; joining the union; best moments of performing; beginning music; Army; trumpet players; Barnett’s band; Local 471 politics; performing at AFL-CIO merge convention; other musicians; Union merger; touring and the black theater circuit; switching to baritone and performances.

[T1S2] Barnett’s band; relatives; Elks band members; old Musicians’ Club; booking jobs and rival bandleaders; other musicians; AAJPSP oral history project; performing at sporting events.

  Folder
Betters, Harold interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 22, 1996 6

Bettors, Harold, a trombone player who was a bandleader and performed in Pittsburgh, New York and Washington D.C.

[T1S1] Musical family; joining Local 471; Army; Musicians’ Club history; Army; touring with band and importance of traveling; suburban high school music programs; booking jobs; music schools; early performances in Pittsburgh; problems with Union; Union members.

[T1S2] purpose of AAJPSP oral history project; current Union politics.

  Folder
Betters, Jerry interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 1, 1997 7

Bettors, Jerry (July 1, 1997) a percussionist and charismatic band leader who had a popular club in Pittsburgh after his time touring and performing in New York.

[T1S1] music and childhood; Local 471, Local 60 and their merger; racism in the clubs; playing at Pittsburgh clubs; Jerry Bettors Club; meeting Frank Sinatra; performing in New York; friendship with Anne Baker; drums studio in New York.

[T1S2] advice to younger musicians; inspirational musicians; camaraderie between musicians; old Club; significance of oral histories project; importance of racial inclusion among musicians

  Folder
Betters, Jerry interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 2, 1997 8

Bettors, Jerry (July 2, 1997) a percussionist and charismatic band leader who had a popular club in Pittsburgh after his time touring and performing in New York.

[T1S1] owning his club; importance of being qualified; younger musicians; singers and other musicians; learning in New York City; advice to younger musicians; musical influence; carnival circuit and musical endurance.

  Folder
Boswell, Robert interviewed by Charles E. Austin, April 22, 1996 9

Boswell, Bobby, a bass player who performed with Billie Holiday and in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Beginning music; early band; joining Local 471; Local 471 and members; jam sessions; other musicians; Army; Billie Holiday’s Band; returning to Pittsburgh; Local 471 officers; playing to audience; Walt Harper’s Band; transcription jobs.

[T1S2] Touring with Bradshaw; other musicians; old Musicians’ Club importance and layout; downtown clubs; racial tensions between bands; Union merger; changes audience and music; other musicians; Union merger; society bands expectations.

  Folder
Brooks, Alyce interviewed by Cathy Cairns, June 24, 1997 10

Brooks, Alyce, a pianist and singer who performed her solo act in lounges in Pittsburgh and around the U.S.

[T1S1] Childhood; performing in Pittsburgh and Chicago; Pittsburgh lounges; greatest achievement; the Convention; proudest moment; advice for younger musicians; reading music.

[T1S2] Esteemed musicians and Union members; favorite songs; advice from mother; meeting Erroll Garner.

  Folder
Brooks, Cecil II interviewed by George Thompson, October 24, 1995 11

Brooks, Cecil, a drummer who toured in Ohio and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] beginning music playing piano, then drums; joining Local 471 and playing professionally; touring in Ohio; playing with Bobby Jones; relationshipo with Local 471; Musician's club; difficulty musically succeeding in Pittsburgh; racism in Pittsburgh; disgust with Union; economic problems affect availability of jobs; monetary corruption; advice to younger musicians; importance of drummer in a band.

  Folder
Burns, Bill interviewed by George Thompson, July 29, 1998 12

Burns, Bill, a guitar player from a musical family who performed in New York and was a band leader in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Musical family and beginning music; time in the Army; performing in New York; Union 802; joining Local 471; starting band; mentor; playing in Pittsburgh; new Musicians’ Club; childhood inspirations; importance of practicing; Pittsburgh clubs.

[T1S2] Lessons and reading music; musical influence; performing for church; quitting and returning; Union politics and merger; transcription jobs; being a band leader; importance of traveling; other musicians; advice for younger musicians.

  Folder
Cook, Adolph Doug interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 12, 1998 13

Cook, Adolph Doug, piano player who was a bandleader in the Army, and performed in Pittsburgh and Michigan.

[T1S1] Beginning music; Army; territory bands; relationship with Local 471 members; the Musician’s Club; WPA Bands; segregation in the Army; enlisting in the Army.

[T1S2] Other piano players and bands; performing in Pittsburgh; other musicians and style of playing; Local 56 (Grand Rapids); performing in Michigan; advice to younger musicians; performing for weddings.

  Folder
Cotton, William interviewed by Charles E. Austin, February 29, 1996 14

Cotton, William, a piano player and singer who was a bandleader and performed in Pittsburgh. [T1S1] Beginning music; learning from musicians; joining a union; time in the service; music school in Pittsburgh; performing in Pittsburgh; early exposure to music; touring; photographs; booking jobs; Local 471 members and Pittsburgh clubs.

[T1S2] Downtown clubs; problems with Local 471; Union merger; Local 471 officers; Pittsburgh clubs; bandleader responsibilities; 50 year card and Union pension; playing to the crowd; Union merge and loss of musicians; racial relations and clubs.

  Folder
Cottrell, Charles interviewed by Charles E. Austin, January 29, 1997 15

Cottrell, Charles, a piano player who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Music and childhood; Army; learning from musicians; influential musicians; Local 471 clique; performing in Pittsburgh; traveling; changes from the Union merge. [T1S2] Post-merger politics; transcription jobs; advice to younger musicians; carnival shows; importance of fellowship and sharing with younger musicians; touring; Local 471 officers; significance of musician fellowship and playing music;

[T2S1] performing in Pittsburgh clubs; other musicians.

  Folder
Dunn, Nathaniel "Tinky" interviewed by Charles E. Austin, September 19, 1997 16

Dunn, Nathaniel “Tinky,” a bass player who joined the Union in 1939, had a band and played in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Music in childhood and lessons; playing in Pittsburgh clubs in early years; relationship with union members; transcription and WPA Bands; New Union and MPT; Dunn’s first group; writing music; religion and childhood; old club; history of union and members. [T1S2] Importance of reading music; involvement in Union; effects of new club; playing in Pittsburgh clubs; teaching music and Austin’s (Interviewer) childhood; advice for younger musicians; gospel music.

  Folder
Elliot, Jerry interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 25, 1997 17

Elliott, Jerry, a trombone player who began playing piano while in the service, played piano and wrote music in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Junior and high school musical career; time in the Army; Joe Westray’s Band; brass instrument mouthpiece technique; the Union and the Musicians’ Club; piano and trombone; writing music; difference between old and new Club; playing with other musicians.

[T1S2] Special gigs; Pittsburgh’s Musicians’ Club comparison; disparity between inner-city and suburban schools; lack of leadership in young generation; drug problems; daytime jobs; importance of upbringing; technique players; advice for younger musicians.

  Folder
Fisher, Kenny interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 28, 1997 18

Fisher, Kenny, a tenor saxophone player who wrote music and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Beginning music; Union merge; East Liberty Musicians’ Club and musicians; private lessons; bands and Local 471 members; big bands; influential musicians; Union merge politics; traveling; teaching music to young students.

[T1S2] Jazz sessions; high school years; father’s musical career; bands and bandleader.

  BoxFolder
Gambrell, Jacques "Bill" interviewed by Charles E. Austin, May 8, 1995 21

Gambrell, Bill, a piano and organ player who was an active member of the Local 471 and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] History of Local 471; Local 471 politics; performing in Pittsburgh; racism on the job; Union pensions; involvement in the Union; performing in high school. [T1S2] Performing in Pittsburgh; racism at the Moose; Union pensions and gold cards; Union merger and politics; importance of professionalism, appearance, and adapting to the audience.

  Folder
Hardy, Rubye Younge interviewed by Charles E. Austin, December 10, 1996 2

Hardy, Ruby Younge, a piano and organ player who performed in Pittsburgh clubs and Ebenezer Church.

[T1S1] Childhood and playing music; joining Local 471 and Musicians’ Club; trio and booking jobs; other musicians; being Local 471’s secretary; record keeping and Union merge; performing in downtown Pittsburgh; performing with Honeyboy Minor; race relations in downtown clubs.

[T1S2] Other musicians; education; importance of reading music; Local 471 officer politics; teaching music; performing in church; other musicians; Union merge politics; musician friends; problems after Union merge; transcription jobs.

  Folder
Harper, Walt interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 21, 1997 3

Harper, Walt, a pianist and bandleader who performed in Pittsburgh and owned two clubs (Attic and Harper’s).

[T1S1] Musical family and beginning music; early jobs and traveling; racism; composing music; relationship with Local 471 and members; Musicians’ Club camaraderie; club ownership; tearing down Hill District for Civic Arena; Bamboola; camaraderie in Hill District.

[T1S2] Musicians’ Club and moving to East Liberty; importance of reading music; being a bandleader; group dynamics; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Harris, Joseph interviewed by Charles E. Austin, December 6, 1995 4

Harris, Joseph (December 6, 1995), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh, around the United States and in Europe.

[T1S1] Playing and performing in high school; time in the Army; balancing club, school and steel mill work; private lessons; Pittsburgh clubs; Local 471; Union merger.

[T1S2] Racism; driving home from gigs; camaraderie in old Musicians’ Club; problem with Union member; inspirational musicians; Local 471 camaraderie; importance of day job; advice for younger musicians.

  Folder
Harris, Joseph Jr. interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 7, 1998 5

Harris, Joseph Jr. (August 7, 1998), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh, around the United States and in Europe.

[T1S1] Beginning music and playing in Pittsburgh; performing in Chicago; traveling around the United States; performing in Europe; Local 471 musicians and camaraderie; high school music programs; music proving a fulfilling life; other musicians; performing and learning in Pittsburgh.

[T1S2] Family; private lessons; importance of reading; changes in music; Union merge politics; race relations; time in Sweden; importance of being prepared and self image; problems after Union merge; golf.

  Folder
Henderson, Pete interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 8, 1998 6

Henderson, Pete, a trumpeter who played in the Service, toured with Pearl Bailey, and played in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Acquiring a trumpet and private lessons; high school jazz ensemble; time in the Service; performing in his youth; camaraderie of the Union; tour with Pearl Bailey; playing in Pittsburgh clubs.

[T1S2] Racial discrimination at Volkiens; musical influences; changes in jazz; effects of losing old Club; the Pittsburgh sound; Union merger; boat touring; teaching music; advice for younger musicians.

  Folder
Hill, Herman interviewed by Charles E. Austin, September 23, 1997 7

Hill, Herman, a trombone and baritone horn player who performed in Pittsburgh and New York and worked for the Courier and the New York Times.

[T1S1] High school and joining union; Local 802 (New York); Navy; Local 471; moving to New York; Local 471 members and Musicians’ Club; private lessons; Navy responsibilities; childhood memories; touring; Pittsburgh clubs; integration from merger.

[T1S2] Union merger and tensions; history of Musicians’ Club; returning from New York after merger; childhood inspirations; playing for Mellon’s Band; musical style and importance of doubling; other musicians; Charles’s (interviewer) jobs after merger; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Hughes, John interviewed by Ms. Yamu, April 4, 1996 8

Hughes, John, (April 4, 1996), a piano player who performed in Pittsburgh and was also a teacher.

[T1S1] Beginning music and family; joining Local 471; about Local 471; other jobs; Pittsburgh clubs; teaching and performing; jazz and Pittsburgh; writing music; staying in Pittsburgh and relationship with traveling musicians; WPA band history; old Musicians’ Club; Local 471 officers; education and performing.

[T1S2] Differences between Musicians’ Clubs; difference between Local 60 and Local 471; preparing to perform; other musicians; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Hughes, John interviewed by Ms. Yamu, May 25, 1996 9

Hughes, John, (May 25, 1996), a piano player who performed in Pittsburgh and was also a teacher.

[T1S1] Education; interest in music; significance of jazz; favorite music; first professional job; private clubs versus public locations; current Pittsburgh clubs; importance of practicing.

  Folder
Humphries, Lawrence interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 8, 1997 10

Humphries, Lawrence, a tenor saxophone and clarinet player who composed music and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Musical family and childhood; playing in Pittsburgh; uncles’ influence and musicians’ legacy; performers in Pittsburgh; uncles in New York; composing music; brother Roger; time in New York; family; Local 471.

[T1S2] Enlisting in the Air Force; moving to New York; studying music; doubling; advice to younger musicians; Charles’s (interviewer) working after Union merger; importance of studying music; family responsibilities.

  Folder
Humphries, Roger interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 8, 1998 11

Humphries, Roger, a drummer who began performing at a young age, toured and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Musical family and childhood; family inspiration; camaraderie with older musicians; purpose of JPS oral histories; rehearsal bands and teaching music; East Liberty Club; performing in Pittsburgh; drum playing style; Pittsburgh’s notoriety; importance of education and a job; enjoyment from performing.

[T1S2] Union merger court case; merger tensions; quitting the Union; inspirational drummers; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Jones, Roy interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 12, 1997 12

Jones, Roy, a trumpet player who performed the National Guard Band and in Pittsburgh with the Fitzpatrick brothers.

[T1S1] Music in high school; National Guard Band; the Fitzpatrick brothers and joining Local 471; performing, arranging and learning; old Musicians’ Club camaraderie; clubs on the Northside; quitting playing; inspirational musicians; advice to younger musicians; clubs and musicians.

[T1S2] Camaraderie and maintaining relationships with musicians; benefits of learning an instrument; difficulties of aging and performing; performing and adapting to individual clubs; camaraderie in black neighborhoods of Pittsburgh; music as an escape; younger generation.

  Folder
Kelly, Marcus interviewed by Charles E. Austin, April 16, 1996 13

Kelly, Marcus, a bass player who was a bandleader and performed in Pittsburgh.\

[T1S1] Pay scale; beginning music; Army; Local 471; traveling; bands; Pittsburgh clubs; musicians and substance abuse; being a bandleader.

[T1S2] Being a bandleader; Musicians’ Club, members and history; teaching music; pensions and insurance; younger musicians; Local 471 camaraderie; importance of reading music.

  Folder
Kemp, Jesse interviewed by Cathy Cairns, December 15, 1997 14

Kemp, Jesse, a pianist and percussionist who was exposed to jazz by his older brother DeRuyter “Ducky” Kemp, performed jazz and Christian music in Pittsburgh and participated in opposition to the Union merger.

[T1S1] Music and childhood; inspiration; exposure to jazz and union through brother; time in army and post office; re-interest in jazz scene; playing at Pittsburgh clubs; studying at the University of Pittsburgh; Christian education; changes in jazz; involvement in Christian music. [T1S2] Opposition to Union merger; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Kennedy, Joe Jr. interviewed by himself, September 1998 15

Kennedy, Joe Jr., a violinist who performed in Pittsburgh as a youth, performed for the Army and Richmond Symphony, and toured internationally.

[T1S1] Childhood and musical family; studying music; time in army band; Musicians’ Club and union members; touring with Four Strings; Richmond Symphony; international touring; university positions; esteemed Local 471 members.

  Folder
Laley, Daniel interviewed by Charles E. Austin, November 2, 1996 16

Laley, Dan, a bass player who performed in Pittsburgh and around the United States.

[T1S1] Beginning music; touring; Army; band members; musicians.

[T1S2] Importance of being versatile; gifts of musical career; jam sessions; importance of touring; performing with great musicians.

  Folder
Lee, Dave interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 6, 1998 17

Lee, David, a percussionist who learned from experience with jazz musicians, worked during the day and performed at Pittsburgh clubs at night.

[T1S1] Learning from musicians; musicians’’ appearance; time in the Navy; Union members; ballgames and volunteering; politics with touring; playing at Pittsburgh clubs; Union members.

[T1S2] Musicians’ pensions; burden of heavy instruments; advice to younger musicians; reading music; role models.

  Folder
Lee, Harold interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 3, 1997 18

Lee, Harold, a percussionist and fifty year Union member who began playing in the 40s in the Pittsburgh area, traveled with the Navy Band until 1946 when he returned and continued to perform in the Pittsburgh area. [T1S1] First performance; participation in Langley High School band; private lessons; traveling with the Navy Band; playing at Pittsburgh clubs; the Union clique; the Club; younger musicians; reading music; mechanical vs. natural musicianship; the theater circuit; expected price for performances; childhood inspiration; performing with the Carnival.

[T1S2] Children’s participation in music; the WPA band; MPT funds; Local 471 officers; the Union merger; advice to younger musicians; Union inclusion of African American musicians in publicized performances; gospel music; biographical information; fifty year card.

  Folder
McCown, Frank interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 16, 1997 19

McCown, Frank, a saxophone player who was a bandleader and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] High school band; Navy; private lessons; being a bandleader; college; Local 471 Big Band; Musicians’ Club relocation; performing with other bands; being band leader; Union dues; musicians.

[T1S2] Recording music; booking gigs; territory bands; Union merge politics; advice to younger musicians; rehearsal bands.

  Folder
McDaniel, Tommy interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 9, 1998 20

McDaniel, Tommy, a bass player who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Music and high school; joining Local 471 and Union members; family; Pittsburgh clubs; importance of reading and writing music; Union merger; hopes of continuing jazz tradition; results of Union merger; significance of Pittsburgh jazz; performing in Pittsburgh; pension program; inspirational performers; reputation of Pittsburgh performers.

[T1S2] Other musicians; quitting performing; Los Angeles performers; power of music; advice to younger musicians; impressions of Musicians’ Club and Union; great musicians.

  Folder
McKay, Delsey interviewed by Cathy Cairns, March 31, 1997 21

McKay, Delsey, a pianist and contortionist who had a popular variety act in Pittsburgh for over twenty years, studied at Julliard, toured Europe, and conducted historical research.

[T1S1] Musical family and childhood; high school activities; amateur hour; beginning show business; unique variety act; surgery and invention of coat hanger act; performing piano; joining Local 60; joining Local 471; racism and moving to Hill District; Lonnie Fisher’s death; performing in Oakland; band leader.

[T1S2] Studying at Duquesne University; New York City and studying at Julliard; London and recordings; death of Martin Luther King Jr.; competing in international music festivals; involvement with American Bicentennial Artists’ Day; history of Ben Banaka; Banaka’s grandmother’s life in England.

[T2S1] Banaka family’s history in U.S.; importance of representation in Washington D.C.; McKay’s family’s involvement in Civil War; hope that Washington D.C. becomes state.

  Folder
McMahon, William "Bass" interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 24, 1995 22

McMahon, Bass, a bass player who performed in Pittsburgh and around the United States.

[T1S1] Early bands and musicians; joining Local 471; touring and performing with bands; great performers; importance of traveling; current musician relationship; plan for reunion; bands; importance of reading music; loss of musician camaraderie.

[T1S2] Generational differences.

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Moody, Willis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 22, 1997 31

Moody, Willis, a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Army; audition test and joining Local 471; Local 471 Big Band; performing in Pittsburgh; traveling; old Musicians’ Club; transcription jobs; playing downtown; Local 471 camaraderie; moving club to East Liberty; Union merger politics; racism in Miami.

[T1S2] High school band and lessons; Local 471 members.

  Folder
Murphy, Carl interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 5, 1997 2

Murphy, Carl, a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Musical family and beginning music; Army; joining Local 471; differences between Musicians’ Clubs; being a bandleader; paying dues; listen to others and learning to read music; bands; musician camaraderie; Local 60 social club and merger politics.

[T1S2] Union merger politics; Union meetings; effect of the merge; jobs and experience; advice to younger musicians; musicians; similar Union merges; importance of racial heterogeneous musical groups.

  Folder
Nance, Art interviewed by Charles E. Austin, October 5, 1998 3

Nance, Art, a saxophone player who played in the Army, performed with Walt Harper’s Band and was band leader of Art Nance and the Five Deuces.

[T1S1] Childhood and father’s musical inspiration; performing in high school; performing in Army; joining Local 471 and advice from older musicians; joining the Army.

[T1S2] Performing with Walt Harper and Joe Westray; Union merger politics; advice to younger musicians; musical inspiration.

  Folder
Nelson, Frank interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 26, 1998 4

Nelson, Frank, a saxophone player who performed in Pittsburgh with the Silvertones and later with the Bach Choir.

[T1S1] Beginning music; Local 471 Big Band; performing in Pittsburgh; loss of teeth and ending music career; high school band; Silvertones; audition test and joining Local 471; uncle Norman Ball and musical inspiration; working in a music store; Big Band members.

[T1S2] Local 471 members and history; advice to younger musicians; singing with Bach Choir.

  Folder
Odum, Joe interviewed by Charles E. Austin, September 17, 1997 5

Odum, Joe, a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Studying music; joining the union; performing at Pittsburgh clubs; changes in music; Union merge and importance of staying in Union; transcription and MTP jobs; vaudeville style performers; value of recording jazz history.

[T1S2] Charles’s (interviewer) childhood memories; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Patton, Joe interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 25, 1998 6

Patton, Joe, a trumpet player who performed in Pittsburgh and played in the Navy.

[T1S1]Childhood and lessons; joining Local 471; playing in Pittsburgh; Elks clubs; work, school and performing; carnivals; Local 471 officers; musicians and photograph.

[T1S2] Other musicians; practicing; advice to younger generation.

  Folder
Payne, James interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July31, 1998 7

Payne, James, a trumpet and piano player who performed for Elks bands and dance clubs, and arranged music.

[T1S1] Childhood in Uniontown; joining Local 471; beginning music; studying piano and arranging; Elks clubs; old Musicians’ Club; participation in Local 471; musicians in Elks Band; musical influence; other musicians; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Pryor, Fred interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 29, 1997 8

Pyror, Fred, a drummer and band leader who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Playing in high school; clubs in East Liberty; performing in Pittsburgh; other musicians; cabarets.

[T1S2] Country clubs and formal events; contracts; Union merger; difference after merge; advice to younger musicians; importance of reading; MPT jobs; recording; Local 471 presidents.

  Folder
Smith, Eldridge interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 10, 1997 9

Smith, Elderidge, a baritone horn player who performed in the Army, Baltimore and Pittsburgh.

[T1S1]Playing in high school; joining the Army; Union and fifty year card; Army; performing in Pittsburgh; other musicians; concert bands; MTP jobs; black theater circuit; racism in South; clubs in Pittsburgh; alcohol abuse; other musicians.

[T1S2] Inspirational musicians; reputations; friendships made while traveling; family and day job; advice to younger musicians; Union merger politics; payment for performances; band bar tabs.

  Folder
Spaulding, George Duke interviewed by Charles E. Austin, October 2, 1997 10

Spalding, George Duke, a piano player who grew up in the south, studied a Julliard and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Musical family and childhood; joining the union; performing in Pittsburgh; studying at Julliard; performing with white band; performance attire; territory band touring; Union earnings and pensions; importance of day job.

[T1S2] Local 471 charter; appearance and jobs; Atlantic City; old Musicians’ Club; Union merger; advice to younger musicians; performing for religious institutions; future of music.

  Folder
Steath, Ollie interviewed by Charles E. Austin, July 19, 1997 11

Steath, Ollie, a musician who performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Beginning music; performing with group and concert band; Musicians’ Club; Elks Band; father’s life and musical career; transcription jobs; Union merger and quitting playing; Musicians’ Club; importance of preserving jazz history; advice to younger musicians.

  Folder
Thomas, John interviewed by Charles E. Austin, May 27, 1997 12

Thomas, John, a piano player who played with the Army and traveled to Europe, and performed in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Beginning music; time in Aliquippa; performing in Pittsburgh; time in Army; Local 471 members; day jobs; Pittsburgh clubs and performers; studying at Phileon Music Institute; importance of reading music; other pianists; problems with band members; pension program and responsibilities of bandleaders; treatment of musicians; older Local 471 members.

[T1S2] Mabel Rogers; the Musicians’ Club move; Union merge; MTP jobs; young musicians; being a bandleader; childhood music inspiration; job offer from New York.

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Thompson, George interviewed by Charles E. Austin, Feburary 23, 1996 13

Thompson, George (Feburary 23, 1996), an alto and tenor saxophone player who played with Army band and was a member of the Bobby Jones Trio for twenty eight years in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Beginning music and high school band; Army band; joining Local 471; Musicians’ Club and jam sessions; Big Band members; expectations from Union merge; band members; loss of camaraderie; merge politics; importance of other job; younger musicians; touring.

[T1S2] (Distorted discussion); playing to the audience; Elks Band; other musicians; Local 471 clique; other musicians; younger musicians and rehearsal bands.

  Folder
Thompson, George interviewed by Cathy Cairns, December 3, 1997 14

Thompson, George (December 3, 1997), an alto and tenor saxophone player who played with Army band and was a member of the Bobby Jones Trio for twenty eight years in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Musical family and childhood; Army; early bands and traveling; Bobby Jones Trio; R House and other clubs; musical inspiration; Bobby Jones Trio’s cohesiveness; advice to younger musicians; relationship with Union and club; memorable moments; legacy for younger generation.

  Folder
Turrentine, Stanley interviewed by Charles E. Austin, November 23, 1997 15

Turrentine, Stanley, a saxophone player who began performing at a young age, performed in Pittsburgh, around the United States, and in Europe.

[T1S1] Musical family and childhood; playing professionally; learning from musicians; touring with Max Roach’s band; brother Tommy Turrentine’s influence; importance of Musicians’ Club; changes in music; touring; expression through music; New York; Tommy’s support; advice to younger musicians.

[T1S2] Other musicians; changes in music; significance of jazz history; AAJPSP Oral Histories Project.

  Folder
Webster, Robin interviewed by Charles E. Austin, September 25, 1997 16

Webster, Robin, a saxophone player who played for the Army band and in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Childhood and music; Army band; performing in Pittsburgh and other musicians; proper payment for job; rehearsal bands; loss of camaraderie without old Musicians’ Club; importance of professionalism and respecting elder musicians; other musicians; performing solo and with trios; mentors from Local 471.

[T1S2] Intimidation of other players; importance of dedication and practicing; Pittsburgh style of playing; studying music; advice to younger musicians; Union merger; choosing gigs.

  Folder
Westray, Joe interviewed by Charles E. Austin, November 13, 1997 17

Westray, Joe, by Cathy (sister), a guitarist who was a band leader and Local 471 Union president, and owned a club in Pittsburgh.

[T1S1] Beginning music and lessons; Local 471 and Musicians’ Club; arranging music; touring; playing in Pittsburgh; significance of Joe Westray’s Band; other musicians; performance attire; band leader; education; traveling locally with Joe; balancing business and music; Joe’s legacy; starting a music school.

[T1S2] Joe’s dream of a music school; Cathy’s relationship with Joe; importance of training; Joe’s grandson, Ronnie; Musicians’ Club relocation; Union Merger and effects; importance of Old Musicians’ Club; other musicians.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, June 9, 1995 18

Young, Curtis, (June 9, 1995), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] History of early union; clubs in the Hill District; Local 471 politics; Union merger politics; importance of historical documents; playing during Great Depression; Local 471 charter; other Pittsburgh musicians.

[T1S2] Other musicians; importance of identifying jazz performers; Union merger politics; value of historical documents; history of clubs and Local 471; present day politics; importance of jazz in black community; creation of bands.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 25, 1995 19

Young, Curtis, (August 25, 1995), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] International drumming traditions; importance of reading music; opening Musicians’ Club; WPA bands; Local 471 officer politics; historical information and documents.

[T1S2] AAJPSP organizational matters.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, September 20, 1995 20

Young, Curtis, (September 20, 1995), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] Discussion of early Local 471 members (alphabetical list); photographs of musicians.

[T1S2] Other early musicians; Local 471 presidents; performing with bands; importance of early Local 471 history; practice bands; other musicians.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, Feburary 19, 1996 21

Young, Curtis, (February 19, 1996), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] Map and location of Hill District clubs; musicians and Pittsburgh clubs. [T1S2] Other musicians; sports and performing; importance of accurate historical information; early Local 471 officers and politics; importance of primary source information.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, March 29, 1996 22

Young, Curtis, (March 29, 1996), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] Map and location of Hill District clubs.

[T1S2] Hill District clubs; discussion of research.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, June 17, 1997 23

Young, Curtis (June 17, 1997), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] History of African American Musical Society; Elite Serenaders and other musicians from the 20s; Young family history; bee keeping and horticulture.

[T1S2] discussion of group photograph and difficulties of oral history project.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, August 13, 1997 24

Young, Curtis, (August 13, 1997), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] Discussion of early Local 471 members (alphabetical list); Local 471 officers; recent musician politics.

[T1S2] Musicians Young performed with; opening Musicians’ Club; Local 471 officers; musicians and bandleaders; beginnings of jazz; corruption in Union.

  Folder
Young, Curtis interviewed by Charles E. Austin, November 28, 1997 25

Young, Curtis (November 28, 1997), a drummer who performed in Pittsburgh discusses early history of Local 471.

[T1S1] Pittsburgh bands and performers; oral histories project and archives; Pittsburgh performers; importance of preserving jazz history.

[T1S2] Importance of correct information; process of preserving oral histories; Local 471 charter and Union cards; Pittsburgh clubs and organizations; jazz and Union politics.

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Series  III. Project Working Files and Background Organizational Records, 1906-1999 

  BoxFolder
Correspondence Concerning AAJPSP OH Project 41
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AAJPSP OH Project Proposed Partnership with University of Pittsburgh December 3, 1997 2
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Database Report: Table of Interviewers/Interviewees 3
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OH Project Policies and Procedures 4
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Release and Biographical Forms (A-L) 5
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Release and Biographical Forms (M-Z) 6
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Local 471 Members and Information Lists 7
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Photocopies of Sample Membership Cards, Local 471 Musicians' Union 8
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Index to Local 471 Membership Cards 9
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Articles Submitted to The Pittsburgh Musician 10
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Discrimination Civil Action Suit 11
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Jazz Notes,Publication of AAJPSP 12
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Interview Between Curtis Young and Charles E. Austin June 9, 1995 13
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Histories of Local 471 Musicians' Union by Bill Gambrell and Charles E. Austin 14
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Manuscript Draft: The Roots of the African American Musicians' Local 471 of the American Federation of Musicians in the City of Pittsburgh and Beyond by Shakura Ajsabur 15
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Program and Materials for the Back in the Day Celebration 16

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