Guide to the Alvin P. Shapiro Papers, 1942-1998 UA.90.F64

ULS Archives & Special Collections

Summary Information

Repository
ULS Archives & Special Collections
Title
Alvin P. Shapiro Papers
Creator
Shapiro, Alvin P. (Alvin Philip), 1920-
Collection Number
UA.90.F64
Date
1942-1998
Extent
8.0 linear feet (7 boxes)
Abstract
Alvin P. Shapiro, a faculty member at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school (1956-1998), concentrated his research on hypertension, clinical pharmacology, and psychosomatic response with particular focus on the links between hypertension and stress, as well as renal function and hypertension related to systemic scleroderma. He was very active in the administration of the University of Pittsburgh's Medical School as well as Presbyterian University Hospital. Notably, he headed the study section of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program, which produced the first large-scale study of hypertension. Included in this collection are published and unpublished abstracts and manuscripts, research study data sheets, discussion and presentation materials, book drafts, personal military records, personal and professional correspondence, and a few photographs.

Preferred Citation

Alvin P. Shapiro Papers, 1942-1998, UA.90.F64, University Archives, Archives & Special Collections, University of Pittsburgh Library System

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Biography

Alvin P. Shapiro was born on December 28, 1920 in Nashville, Tennessee, but grew up on Staten Island in New York. Throughout his career, he contributed significantly to the practice of internal medicine with his extensive research on hypertension and psychosomatic medical issues. Shapiro earned his medical degree from the Long Island College of Medicine in 1944, and spent his residency at the Goldwater Memorial Hospital in New York where he specialized in internal medicine. He then served as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps and was stationed at the Army Air Base in Adak, Alaska.

After military service, Shapiro was employed as an instructor and researcher in the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, and later at the Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, Texas. He joined the staff of the University of Pittsburgh’s Medical School in 1956, and was an active researcher and author until his death in 1998. At the University of Pittsburgh, he was the director of the psychosomatic program and chief of the clinical pharmacology/hypertension section from 1960-1971. He was the associate dean for academic affairs at the University’s medical school from 1971-1975, vice chairman of the department of medicine from 1975-1979, chief of Presbyterian University Hospital from 1977-1979, and chairman of the credentials committee from 1980-1986. From 1986-1993 he was the director of the internal medicine training program at Shadyside Hospital.

Shapiro's research focused on hypertension, clinical pharmacology, and psychosomatic response, with a particular focus on the links between hypertension and stress, as well as renal function and hypertension related to systemic scleroderma. He headed the study section of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program at UPMC, which, in the late 1970s, produced the first large-scale study in which men and women of diverse racial backgrounds were given a simple outpatient therapy for the treatment of hypertension. The initial paper that resulted from this study is considered a landmark in the field by the Journal of the American Medical Association.

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Scope and Content Notes

The Alvin P. Shapiro Papers document the pursuit of medical research into the causes and treatment of hypertension. Shapiro was an active physician and medical researcher from his time in the U.S. Army in the late 1940s through his tenure at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school, which ended upon his death in the late 1990s. His papers include research data as well as published and unpublished abstracts, discussions, and manuscript materials, through which changes in theories and research processes can be seen. The development of hypertension research is notably evident when examining draft revisions of articles and peer-review comments from submissions to scholarly medical journals. Shapiro’s work focused predominantly on how stress and other psychosomatic factors can affect blood pressure and also examinations of renal function and hypertension related to systemic scleroderma. The evolution, efficacy, and side effects of treatments for hypertension, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, are also prominent themes in this collection.

His role as a medical educator also shaped Shapiro's research interests. This collection includes scholarly works that examine and critique medical education in the United States in the 1970s. There are also many pieces, generally written for local Pittsburgh medical community newsletters, in which Shapiro reflects on his personal experiences as a doctor, researcher, educator, and patient. Shapiro’s time as a military physician during World War II is also represented.

Conspicuously missing from the Shapiro Papers are published manuscript materials from his early career - from the 1950s through 1970. It is unclear why these documents are not a part of this collection. There are, however, unpublished materials, and materials related to published abstracts and discussions from this time period.

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Arrangement

The Shapiro papers have been arranged into the following series. Extensive scope notes on each series are available in the container list.

Series I. Unpublished Abstracts and Manuscripts

Series II. Publications from Committees, Groups and Panels

Series III. Published Abstracts and Discussions

Series IV. Published Manuscripts

Series V. Book Drafts and Materials

Series VI. Personal Papers

Series VII. Photographs

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

ULS Archives & Special Collections, October, 2010

University of Pittsburgh Library System
Archives & Special Collections
Website: library.pitt.edu/archives-special-collections
412-648-3232 (ASC) | 412-648-8190 (Hillman)
Contact Us: www.library.pitt.edu/ask-archivist

Access Restrictions

Several files in this collection have been restricted because they contain the names and medical information of human study subjects. Restricted folders are identified in the contents list and are contained in Boxes 1-6. For questions about access conditions, contact the University Archivist.

Copyright

No copyright restrictions.

Acquisition Information

Gift of Ruth Shapiro in May 1999.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Katrina Milbrodt in October 2010.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Presbyterian-University Hospital of Pittsburgh.
  • Shadyside Hospital (Pittsburgh, Pa.).
  • United States. Army. Medical Corps.
  • University of Pittsburgh. School of Medicine. -- Faculty

Personal Name(s)

  • Shapiro, Alvin P. (Alvin Philip), 1920-

Subject(s)

  • Faculty papers
  • Health and medicine
  • Hypertension -- Causes and theories of causation
  • Hypertension -- Prevention
  • Hypertension -- Psychosomatic aspects
  • Hypertension -- Research
  • Hypertension -- Treatment
  • Kidneys -- Diseases
  • Medical education -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • Medical teaching personnel -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • Medicine and psychology
  • Medicine, Psychosomatic
  • Physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Systemic scleroderma
  • University of Pittsburgh

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Previous Citation

Alvin P. Shapiro Papers, 1942-1998, UA.90.F64, University Archives, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

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Collection Inventory

Series  I. Unpublished Abstracts and Manuscripts, 1954-1992 

Scope and Content Notes

This section contains abstracts and manuscript draft materials that were submitted for publication in scholarly medical journals, or for inclusion in medical conferences, but were not accepted. Frequently included are letters from journal editors and peer reviewers that explain why certain submissions were rejected, or offer suggestions for revisions. When taken together with Shapiro's published materials, this section helps to provide a more complete perspective on the evolution of hypertension research and publication. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Access Restrictions

Some files in this section include the personal and medical information of human study subjects and access is governed by certain restrictions. In Box 1, Folders 4 and 16 are restricted.

  BoxFolder
Unpublished Abstracts, 1960-1992 11-2
  Folder
Effect of Low Sodium on Body Fluid Distribution in Hypertension, 1954 3
  Folder
Effect of Low Sodium on Body Fluid Distribution in Hypertension [RESTRICTED], 1954 4
  Folder
The Blood Pressure of Unanesthetized Cats, 1954 5
  Folder
Drug Therapy of Hypertension, undated 6
  Folder
ACHT in Pepsinogen (Gastroenterology Research Group), 1956-1957 7
  Folder
Effect of ACHT on Urine, Blood and Gastric Pepsinogen in the Rat, 1957 8
  Folder
Pepsinogen Paper, 1956-1957 9
  Folder
Susceptibility of Rats with Renal Hypertension to Experimental Pyelonephritis, 1960 10
  Folder
The Effect of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25) on Learning in Rats, undated 11
  Folder
Failure of Production Teratogenic by Chlorothiazide in Rats, 1965 12
  Folder
Clyde Mood Scale Measurements on Fraternal and Identical Twins Subjected to Noxious Stimuli, 1968 13
  Folder
Studies of the Role of Antibiotic Persistence in the Therapy of Experimental Pyelonephritis II., 1969 14
  Folder
The Effect of the Release of Mechanical Compression to the Hindbrain by Vascular Structures on the Systemic Blood Pressure and Related Parameters in Normotensive and Hypertensive Man, 1980-1983 15
  Folder
The Effect of the Release of Mechanical Compression to the Hindbrain by Vascular Structures on the Systemic Blood Pressure and Related Parameters in Normotensive and Hypertensive Man [RESTRICTED], 1980-1983 16
  Folder
Angiotensin II-Induced Proteinuria: A Study of the Relative Effects of Elevated Blood Pressure and Altered Glomerular Permeability, 1981-1984 17
  Folder
Biobehavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Hypertension, 1982-1984 18
  Folder
Chapter for Leonard White for "Placebo: Clinical Phenomena and New Insights", 1982-1983 19
  Folder
New Onset of Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation: A Preliminary Report and Analysis, 1983 20
  Folder
Chapter for "Handbook of Prevention", 1984 21
  Folder
Quality of Life Issues in Hypertension and Antihypertensive Therapy, 1984-1985 22
  Folder
Microvascular Decompression of the Medulla in Hypertension, 1985-1988 23
  Folder
Reflections on Clinical Education and the Doctor of Tomorrow, 1989-1990 24
  Folder
Neuropsychological Consequences of Hypertension and Its Treatment, 1990-1992 25
  Folder
Relationship of Mild Diastolic Hypertension to Memory Performance, 1991 26

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Series  II. Publications from Committees, Groups, and Panels, 1979-1986 

Scope and Content Notes

Shapiro participated in multiple committees, panels, and group research studies related to hypertension. Most of the material in this series focuses on the links between stress and hypertension, stress and illness, and non-pharmacologic treatments for hypertension. Also included are three publications that resulted from the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program: a groundbreaking long-term study that was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school; it was one of the first to broadly compare instances and treatment of hypertension across gender and racial categories. The bulk of material in this series consists of copies of the published articles and transcripts of discussions, however some related correspondence and draft materials are present. Documents are arranged chronologically.

  Folder
The Role of Stress in Hypertension, 1977-1979 27
  Folder
Stress and Physical Illness, 1980-9182 28
  Folder
Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Group, 1979-1984 29
  Folder
The 1984 Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, 1984 30
  Folder
Nonpharmacological Approaches to the Control of High Blood Pressure, 1984-1986 31
  Folder
Report on Fully Automated Blood Pressure Monitoring , 1986 32

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Series  III. Published Abstracts and Discussions, 1950-1997 

Scope and Content Notes

This series includes published abstracts, discussions, and presentations, as well as relating research study data sheets, notes, graphs, correspondence, and publication submission forms from the whole of Shapiro's professional life. Shapiro was interested in the medical issues surrounding hypertension and its treatment from very early in his career, and the documents in this series most fully illustrate the evolution of hypertension research from the 1950s through the 1990s. Many of the early materials in this series document early research and testing that link stress to increased instances of hypertension and other medical problems, particularly issues related to renal function and pyelonephritis. Later documents focus largely on the efficacy of non-pharmacologic treatments for hypertension and hypertension related to scleroderma. Also included in this section are published book reviews and letters to the editor. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Access Restrictions

Some files in this section include the personal and medical information of human study subjects and access is governed by certain restrictions. In Box 2, Folders 28, 42, and 94 are restricted.

  Folder
Partial Curriculum Vitae of Abstracts and Discussions, 1950-1962 33
  Folder
The Effect of Sodium Intake on the Action of ACTH in Uncomplicated Essential Hypertension, 1950 34
  Folder
Physiologic and Pharmacologic Studies in a Case of Pheochromocytoma, 1949 35
  Folder
A Comparative Study of the Effects of Veratrum Viride on Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects, [1951] 36
  Folder
A Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Several New Hypotensive Agents as Determined by their Action in Experimental Renal Hypertension and in the Human Patient, 1952 37
  Folder
A Critical Evaluation of the Hypotensive Action of Hydralazine and Hexamethonium Salts in Human and Experimental Hypertension, 1953 38
  Folder
The Influence of Emotional Variables in the Evaluation of Hypotensive Agents, 1953-1954 39
  Folder
Relationship of Adrenalin and T Wave Inversion in the Anxiety State, 1954 40
  Folder
Effect of Low Sodium Intake on Body Fluid Distribution in Hypertension, 1954 41
  Folder
The Volume of the Fluid Compartments in Human and Experimental Hypertension, 1954 42
  Folder
Effect of Behavioral Disturbance on Blood Pressure of Cats, 1955 43
  Folder
The Pathogenesis of Hematogenous Pyelonephritis in Rats and Its Production by a Simple New Method, 1954 44
  Folder
Experimental Chronic Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1955 45
  Folder
Effect of Behavioral Disturbances on Blood Pressure and Related Function in the Rat, 1956 46
  Folder
The Relationship of Bacterial Species to the Pathogenesis of Hematogenous Pyelonephritis, 1956 47
  Folder
Factors Influencing Development of Hypertensive Vascular Disease in Rats with Renal Injury, 1956-1957 48
  Folder
Relationships of Hypertension and Renal Impairment to Experimental Chronic Pyelonephritis in Rats, 1958-1960 49
  Folder
Toxicity of Proteus Urease, 1958 50
  Folder
Relationships of Hypertension and Experimental Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1958 51
  Folder
Hypertension and Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1959 52
  Folder
Discussion (III The Renal Lesion in Pyelonephritis), 1956-1960 53
  Folder
Effect of Hypotensive Drugs on the Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli, 1960 54
  Folder
Presented at Montreal, March 1960, 1960 55
  Folder
Comparative Studies of the Blood Pressure Responses to Different Noxious Stimuli, 1960 56
  Folder
Susceptibility of Renal Hypertensive Rats to Pyelonephritis and the Predisposition of Pyelonephritic Rats to Hypertension, 1960 57
  Folder
Use of Catalase Test to Detect Renal Infection in Hypertension, 1961 58
  Folder
Increased Susceptibility to Pyelonephritis During Acute Hypertension by Angiotensin, 1962 59
  Folder
Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli in Hypertensive Patients: Effect of Reserpine and Chlorothiazide, 1961-1962 60
  Folder
Increased Susceptibility to Pyelonephritis during Acute Hypertension by Vasoconstrictor Agents, 1962 61
  Folder
Effect of Angiotensin II on Renal Hypertensive Rats, 1963 62
  Folder
Effect of Diabetes on Pressor Responses to Noxious Stimuli, 1963 63
  Folder
Pyelonephritis and Hypertension: Experimental and Clinical Studies, 1963 64
  Folder
Social Determinants in the Use of Supportive Drugs, 1962-1963 65
  Folder
Discussion - NKDF - 14th Annual Conference, Angiotensin Systems and Experimental Diseases, Undated 66
  Folder
Questions and Answers: Respiratory or Pharyngeal Infections and Pyelonephritis, 1963 67
  Folder
Questions and Answers: Pyelonephritis and Hypertension, 1964 68
  Folder
Comparison of Pathways of Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli, 1963 69
  Folder
Editorial: Conference on Psychological Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, 1964 70
  Folder
Catalase Test in the Detection of Urinary Infection in Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients, 1964 71
  Folder
The Occurrence of Malignant Hypertension and Renal Insufficiency in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Diffuse Scleroderma), 1964 72
  Folder
Determinants of Cardiovascular Responsiveness to Ischemic Pain, 1963-1964 73
  Folder
Timberline Conference Discussion, 1964 74
  Folder
Council for High Blood Pressure Research Discussion: Blood Pressure and Toxemia in Pregnancy, 1963 75
  Folder
A Metabolic Change Secondary to Restraint, 1963-1964 76
  Folder
Lipolytic Activity of Rat Adipose Tissue, 1964 77
  Folder
Evaluation of Antibiotics in Acute Pyelonephritis in Rats, 1965 78
  Folder
A Lipolytic Activity of Rat Adipose Tissue, 1965 79
  Folder
The Nature of Renal Involvement in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma), 1965 80
  Folder
Diagnostic and Physiologic Implications of the Angiotensin Infusion Test, 1965 81
  BoxFolder
Adrenergic Correlates to Pressor Responsivity, 1964 21
  Folder
Hyper-Responsivity to Angiotensin Induced in Rats by Stress, 1965-1966 2
  Folder
Crout Discussion, Undated 3
  Folder
Renal Content of Renin-Like Material and Pressor Reactivity of Rats with Chronic Pyelonephritis, 1966 4
  Folder
Amphoteric Oxytetracycline in the Therapy of Experimental Acute Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1966 5
  Folder
Effect of B-Blockage on Blood Pressure Reactivity and Its Adrenergic Correlates in Mild Hypertensives, 1966-1967 6
  Folder
An Analysis of the Variability of Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, and Catecholamine Responsiveness to Noxious Stimuli in Identical and Fraternal Twins, 1966-1967 7
  Folder
B-Glucuronidase Excretion in Renal Homotransplant, 1967 8
  Folder
Renal Penetration of Insoluble and Soluble Tetracycline in Experimental Pyelonephritis, 1968 9
  Folder
Hemodynamic and Humoral Factors in Renal Electrolyte Cycles, Undated 10
  Folder
Psychophysiologic Considerations in Blood Pressure Responses, 1967 11
  Folder
Postural Effects on Renal Electrolyte Cycles, Undated 12
  Folder
Double Blind Comparison of Ethacrynic Acid and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertension, Undated 13
  Folder
In Consultation, 1969 14
  Folder
Questions and Answers: Management of Benign Essential Hypertension, 1969-1970 15
  Folder
Peripheral Renin Activity in Renal Parenchymal Disease with Hypertension, 1969 16
  Folder
Effect of High Sodium Intake on Blood Pressure of Rats with Experimental Pyelonephritis, 1969 17
  Folder
Mechanism of Nocturia in Primary Aldosteronism, 1969 18
  Folder
Indigotinuria: An Animal Model for the Blue-Diaper Syndrome?, 1969 19
  Folder
Hypoglycemia - Or Postural Hypertension?, 1970 20
  Folder
Perceptual Differences Between Hypertensive and Normotensive Persons, 1970 21
  Folder
Allopurinol use for Hyperuricemia in Hypertension, 1970 22
  Folder
Plasma Renin Variability with Hypertension and Severe Renal Insufficiency, 1970 23
  Folder
Development of Bacteriuria in a Hypertensive Population: A Seven Year Follow-up Study, 1970 24
  Folder
Plasma Renin Variability with Hypertension and Severe Renal Insufficiency, 1970-1971 25
  Folder
2nd Annual Conference on Automated Indirect Blood Pressure - Panel Discussion, 1971 26
  Folder
Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in Renal Failure with Hypertension, 1971 27
  Folder
Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in Renal Failure with Hypertension [RESTRICTED], 1971 28
  Folder
Hypertension Control in the Community, 1971 29
  Folder
Council for High Blood Pressure Research: Discussion, 1970 30
  Folder
Discussion, Undated 31
  Folder
Study of a Third Year Surgical Clerkship: An Evaluation in Progress, 1972 32
  Folder
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Response to Verbal Instruction and Relaxation in Hypertensives, 1972 33
  Folder
Conference of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research: Discussion, 1972 34
  Folder
Effect of Verbal Instruction and Relaxation on Blood Pressure Response and Recognition in Hypertensives, 1972 35
  Folder
Blood Pressure Regulation in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, Undated 36
  Folder
Letter to the Editor: Value of renal Differential Function Studies in Segmental Renal Ischemia, 1973 37
  Folder
Effects of Diving on Peripheral Venous Renin Activity in the Harbor Seal, 1972 38
  Folder
Discussion: Diuretic Drugs in the Treatment of Hypertension, Undated 39
  Folder
Minoxidil and the Management of Severe Hypertension - A Relationship to Renal Function, 1974 40
  Folder
Letter to the Editor: Hypertension and Unilateral Shrunken Kidney, 1974 41
  Folder
Letter to the Editor: Hypertension and Unilateral Shrunken Kidney [RESTRICTED], 1974 42
  Folder
Influence of Sodium Intake on Blood Pressure and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 1973 43
  Folder
Book Review: Systemic Arterial Hypertension, 1975 44
  Folder
Anglo-American Conference on Continuing Medical Education: Proceedings, April 8-10, 1974 45
  Folder
Book Review, 1975 46
  Folder
Book Review, 1975 47
  Folder
Management of End-Stage Renal Failure Secondary to Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, 1976 48
  Folder
End Stage Renal Failure Secondary to Scleroderma: Outcome of Treatment, 1976 49
  Folder
Renin in Scleroderma with Malignant Hypertension, 1977 50
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1977 51
  Folder
Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) with Malignant Hypertension, 1977 52
  Folder
Beta-Adrenergic Blockade: A New Era in Cardiovascular Medicine: Symposium Discussion, 1978 53
  Folder
Book Review, 1978 54
  Folder
Questions and Answers: Unresponsive Hypertension in Middle-Aged Man, 1978 55
  Folder
Mild Hypertension Meeting: Discussion, 1977 56
  Folder
Effects of Chronic Diuretic Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Elderly Patients with Systolic Hypertension (SH), 1980 57
  Folder
Physician Approach to Controversial Issues in Hypertension, 1980 58
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1980 59
  Folder
Book Review, 1980 60
  Folder
Behavioral Consequences of Mild Hypertension, 1980 61
  Folder
Behavioral Consequences of Mild Hypertension, 1981 62
  Folder
Factors Predicting the Development of Renal Involvement in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (PSS), 1981 63
  Folder
Response of Patients with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis to Antihypertensive Therapy, 1981 64
  Folder
Response of CBF to Treatment in Elderly Patients with SH, 1981 65
  Folder
Book Review, 1981 66
  Folder
Stress and Hypertension: a Clinical Challenge, 1980 67
  Folder
Nonpharmacologic Intervention: Discussion, 1982 68
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1982 69
  Folder
Book Review, 1982 70
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1982 71
  Folder
Behavioural techniques not a substitute for the physician and his drugs, says Shapiro, 1983 72
  Folder
BP Variability: No Change with Age, Type, Severity or Treatment of Hypertension, 1982 73
  Folder
Book Review, 1983 74
  Folder
New Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation, 1983 75
  Folder
Book Review, 1983 76
  Folder
Book Review, 1983 77
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1983-1984 78
  Folder
Essential Hypertension - Pathogenetic Suggestions from Repeated Hemodynamic Investigations in Young Men With Blood Pressure Elevation, 1984 79
  Folder
In Memoriam: Gerald P. Rodnan, 1984 80
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1984 81
  Folder
Relaxation, Pharmacotherapy and Their Interaction in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension, 1984 82
  Folder
Biobehavioral Approaches to Hypertension: Relaxation Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Interaction, 1984 83
  Folder
Reversing the Effects of Elevated Blood Pressure on the Central Nervous System by Antihypertensive Treatment, 1984 84
  Folder
The Response of Cyclosporine Toxicity to Azathioprine and Reduced Cyclosporine Dose, 1985 85
  Folder
Similarities and Differences in Test-Taking Behaviors by Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects, 1985 86
  Folder
Minoxidil in Once-a-Day Triple Therapy for Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypertension, 1985 87
  Folder
Nocturnal Blood Pressure Decrease, Cardiac Transplantation and Diabetes with Autonomic Neuropathy, 1985 88
  Folder
The Contrasting Effects of Cyclosporin-A and Azathioprine on Arterial Blood Pressure and Renal Function Following Cardiac Transplantation, 1985 89
  Folder
Blood Pressure Monitoring and Pill Placebo: Experiences with Two Different Methods of Inducing Nonspecific Treatments Effects for Mild Hypertensives, 1986 90
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1986 91
  Folder
Hypertension, Creatine, and Plasma Renin Activity in Heart Transplant Recipients, 1986 92
  Folder
Renal Artery Stenosis in Blacks, 1986 93
  Folder
Renal Artery Stenosis in Blacks [RESTRICTED], 1986 94
  Folder
Cholesterol Emboli: Relation to Cardiac Catheterization and a Review of Its Clinical Presentations, 1988 95
  Folder
Book Review, 1988 96
  Folder
Can Self-Help Methods Cure Disease? Treating Illness with Behavioral Medicine, 1988 97
  Folder
Relation of Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Treatment Outcomes, 1989 98
  Folder
Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Value in Patient Care, 1990 99
  Folder
AIDS Victims Helped, 1990 100
  Folder
Point/Counterpoint: Are diuretics appropriate as first-line therapy for hypertensives with a family history of diabetes?, 1990 101
  Folder
Behavioral Therapies for Hypertension: Current Status, 1990 102
  Folder
Neuropsychological Performance of Hypertensive and Normotensive Males, 1991 103
  Folder
Book Review, 1991 104
  Folder
Behavioral Therapies for Hypertension: Current Status, 1991 105
  Folder
Age and Hypertension Independently Slow Cognitive Transformation, 1992 106
  Folder
Temperature Biofeedback-assisted Relaxation: A Treatment for White Coat Hypertension?, 1991 107
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1992 108
  Folder
Stress Management with Hypertension: Regression to the Mean and Setting Specific Effects, 1992 109
  Folder
Neurobehavioral Effects of Antihypertensive Medications in Hypertensive Men, 1992 110
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1993 111
  Folder
Antihypertensive Drugs Show Age-Dependent Effects on Short Term Vigilance, But Not Working Memory, 1994 112
  Folder
Neuropsychological Performance of Untreated, Male Hypertensives: Effects of Age, Education, and Alcohol Consumption, 1994 113
  Folder
Letter to the Editor, 1995 114
  Folder
Neuropsychological Sequelae of Antihypertensive Medications, 1996 115
  Folder
Neuropsychological Performance Effects of Antihypertensive Medications, 1996 116
  Folder
Clinical Trials in the 90s and Beyond, 1996 117
  Folder
A "Biased View": Current Drugs in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension, 1997 118
  Folder
Ruminations from Two Curmudgeons, 1997 119
  Folder
Book Review, 1997 120

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Series  IV. Published Manuscripts, 1961-1998  (Bulk, 1971-1998)

Scope and Content Notes

This series contains published manuscripts and relating draft materials, research data sheets, graphs, notes, correspondence, publication submission forms, peer-review documents, and publication proof materials from the latter majority of Shapiro's professional career. During this time, Shapiro's research continued to examine the relationship between stress and hypertension, hypertension and renal function related to systemic scleroderma, as well as pharmacologic and behavioral treatments to control hypertension. Throughout this period, Shapiro was also becoming more involved with the administration of the University of Pittsburgh's medical school, Presbyterian University Hospital, and Shadyside Hospital, where he served, at various times, as dean for academic affairs, chairman of the credentials committee, and director of the internal medicine training program respectively. His service in these capacities is reflected in several publications that critique medical training at universities and hospitals. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Access Restrictions

Some files in this section include the personal and medical information of human study subjects and access is governed by certain restrictions. In Box 2, Folders 125 and 127 are restricted. In Box 3, Folders 5, 7, 20, and 26 are restricted. In Box 4, Folders 21 and 23 are restricted. In Box 5, Folders 4 and 12 are restricted. In Box 6, Folders 16, 22, and 28 are restricted.

  Folder
Effect of Thiazides on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Patients with Hypertension, 1961 121
  Folder
Patterns of Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli in Normal, Hypertensive, and Diabetic Subjects, 1963 122
  Folder
Differences in Perception Between Hypertensive and Normotensive Populations, 1971 123
  Folder
Development of Bacteriuria in a Hypertensive Population: A 7-year Follow-up Study, 1971 124
  Folder
Development of Bacteriuria in a Hypertensive Population: A 7-year Follow-up Study [RESTRICTED], 1971 125
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Technique of Controlled Drug Assay in Hypertension. V. Comparison of Hydrochlorothiazide with a New Quinethazone Diuretic, Metolazone, 1971 126
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Technique of Controlled Drug Assay in Hypertension. V. Comparison of Hydrochlorothiazide with a New Quinethazone Diuretic, Metolazone, [Raw Data], [RESTRICTED], 1971 127
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Studies of Antibiotic Persistence in the Therapy of Experimental Pyelonephritis: Insoluble Tetracyclines in Normal and Pyelonephritic Rats, 1971 128
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The Role of Psychosocial Factors in the Development of Arteriosclerosis in CBA Mice, 1971 129
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Comparison of Ethacrynic Acid and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertension, 1971 130
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Malignant Hypertension Following Renal Artery Branch Obstruction, 1972 31
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Behavioral Approach to the Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Man, 1972 2
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Essential Hypertension - Why Idiopathic?, 1973 3
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Effects of Practolol on Pressor Responses to Noxious Stimuli in Hypertensive Patients, 1973 4
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Effects of Practolol on Pressor Responses to Noxious Stimuli in Hypertensive Patients [RESTRICTED], 1973 5
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Comparison of Pressor and Adrenergic Responses Derived from Direct and Indirect Methods of Cardiovascular Testing, 1973 6
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Comparison of Pressor and Adrenergic Responses Derived from Direct and Indirect Methods of Cardiovascular Testing [RESTRICTED], 1973 7
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Long-term Study of Relationships Between Blood Pressure, Age, and Body Weight in Steel Mill Workers, 1973 8
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Hypertension: Where do we go from here?, [1973] 9
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Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Elevation in Pyelonephritic Rats After Sodium Loading, 1973 10
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Perspectives on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Hypertension, 1974 11
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The Use of Behavioral Objectives in the Development and Evaluation of a Third-year Surgical Clerkship, 1974 12
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Effect of Intermittent Electric Shock on Plasma Renin Activity in Rats, 1974 13
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Blood Pressure and Heart-Rate Response to Verbal Instruction and Relaxation in Hypertension, 1974 14
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The Impact of Curricular Change on Performance on National Board Examinations, 1974 15
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In Memoriam: I. Arthur Mirsky, M.D., 1975 16
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Relationships of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Sodium Balance to Blood Pressure Regulation in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 1975 17
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Blood Pressure Regulation in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 1974 18
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Relationships of Perception, Cognition, Suggestion and Operant Conditioning in Essential Hypertension, 1975 19
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Relationships of Perception, Cognition, Suggestion and Operant Conditioning in Essential Hypertension [RESTRICTED], 1975 20
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Presidential Address - 1975: Before the Colors Fade, 1975 21
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Blood Pressure Regulation During Chronic Renal Failure Due to Polycystic Renal Disease, 1974 22
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Treatment of Severe Hypertension with Minoxidil, 1975 23
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Guest Editorial: The leaning ivied tower, 1976 24
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Renal Arterial Stenosis and Hypertension II. Current Criteria for Surgery, 1976 25
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Renal Arterial Stenosis and Hypertension II. Current Criteria for Surgery [RESTRICTED], 1976 26
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Behavioral Methods in the Treatment of Hypertension: A Review of Their Clinical Status, 1977 27
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Hypertensive Encephalopathy with Cortical Blindness, 1977 28
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Effects of Hemodialysis and Saline Loading on Body Fluid Compartments, Plasma Renin Activity and Blood Pressure in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis, 1977 29
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Hypertension in Radiation Nephritis, 1977 30
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Behavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Hypertension, 1978 31
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Cardiovascular Diseases: Psychosomatic Aspects, 1976 32
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Hypertension - Current Management: Parts I and II, 1977 33
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Non-Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension, 1978 34
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The Utility Function of Antihypertensive Therapy: Discussion, 1978 35
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Treatment of Severe Hypertension, 1978 36
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Behavioral and Environmental Aspects of Hypertension, 1978 37
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Non-A, Non-B Types: A Parable for Behaviorists, 1979 38
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Pathophysiology of Stress-Induced Hypertension, 1979 39
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Behavioral Medicine Approaches to Hypertension: An Integrative Analysis of Theory and Research, 1979 40
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Hypertension: Where we are now, 1980 41
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Proteinuria and Nephrotic Syndrome Induced by Renin in Patients With Renal Artery Stenosis, 1980 41
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Behavior Modification: Can it Control Hypertension, 1980 2
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Universities, Medical Schools, and Hospitals - Can They Coexist?, 1981 3
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Complications of Antihypertensive Therapy, 1981 4
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Attitudes of Physicians Concerning Controversial Issues in Hypertension, 1981 5
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Increased Amphetamine Stereotypy and Longer Haloperidol Catalepsy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Undated 6
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Response of Patients with Renal Involvement by Progressive Systemic Sclerosis to Antihypertensive Therapy, 1981 7
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Pathophysiological Aspects of Hypertension, 1982 8
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Stress and Hypertension, 1982 9
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Behavioral Consequences of Mild Hypertension, 1981 10
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Cerebral Blood Flow Changes with Diuretic Therapy in Elderly Subjects with Systolic Hypertension, 1982 11
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Physiological, Psychological, and Social Determinants in Hypertension, 1978 12
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The Non-Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension, 1980 13-15
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Psychological and Social Factors in Hypertension, 1981 16
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Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and Pheochromocytoma: Association or Coincidence?, 1983 17
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Hypertension and Renal Failure (Scleroderma Renal Crisis) in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, 1983 18-20
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Hypertension and Renal Failure (Scleroderma Renal Crisis) in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis [RESTRICTED], 1983 21
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New Onset of Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation: A Preliminary Report and Analysis, 1983 22
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New Onset of Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation: A Preliminary Report and Analysis [RESTRICTED], 1983 23
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Management of the Elderly Patient with Renovascular Hypertension, 1984 24
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Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods to Assess Severity of Hypertension, Variability and Sleep Changes, 1983 25
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Factors Predicting the Development of Renal Involvement in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, 1984 26
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Effect of Antihypertensive Treatment on the Behavioral Consequences of Elevated Blood Pressure, 1984 27
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The Relaxation Word of the Day: A Simple Technique to Measure Adherence to Relaxation, 1984 28
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15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase and Hexokinase in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Kidney, 1984 29
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Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension, 1985 30
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Temporal Relationships of Treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on the Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, 1985 31
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Pathogenesis and Pharmacologic Management of Pseudo-Obstruction of the Bowel in Pheochromocytoma, 1985 51
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Hypertension in the Elderly Part VIII: Renal Effects of Antihypertensive Drugs in the Elderly, 1986 2
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Loss of Nocturnal Decline in Blood Pressure Developing After Cardiac Transplantation, 1986 3
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Loss of Nocturnal Decline in Blood Pressure Developing After Cardiac Transplantation [RESTRICTED], 1986 4
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Methodological Considerations in Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, 1982 5
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Pharmacologic Agents as Modulators of Stress, 1986 6
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The Contrasting Effects of Cyclosporin-A and Azathioprine on Arterial Blood Pressure and Renal Function Following Cardiac Transplant, 1986 7
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Once-a-Day Triple Therapy with Low-Dose Minoxidil for Moderate Hypertension, 1986 8
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Test-Taking Behaviors by Hypertensive and Normotensive Individuals, 1986 9
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Cardiac Transplantation 1985: Hope -- Promise -- Reality, 1985-1986 10
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Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Comparison of Effects with Concomitant Placebo, Diuretic, and B-Blocker, 1986 11
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Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Comparison of Effects with Concomitant Placebo, Diuretic, and B-Blocker [RESTRICTED], 1986 12
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Drug Therapy in Hypertension, 1985 13
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Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension and Their Relationship to Personality, 1987 14
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Nonpharmacologic Therapy of Hypertension in Blacks, 1987 15
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The Behavioral Treatment of Hypertension: Long-Term Effects, 1987 16
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Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension and Their Relationship to Personality of Patients with this Disorder, 1987 17
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Hypertension in Women: Differences and Implications, 1987 18
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Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in the Management of Hypertension, 1988 19
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Inhibitors of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in the Management of Hypertension, 1984 20
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Definition and Classification of Hypertension, Undated 21
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Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1988 22
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Patient Characteristics and Their Influence on Therapy and Its Outcome in Hypertension of the Elderly, 1987 23
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Teaching Behavioral Concepts in Cardiovascular Disease with Remarks and Challenges to Medical Education, 1985 24
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The Statistical Analysis of Treatment Effects in 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recordings, 1988 25
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Cholesterol Emboli After Cardiac Catheterization: Eight Cases and a Review of the Literature, 1988 26
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Psychological Factors in Hypertension: An Overview, 1988 27
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Drug-Induced Illnesses as a Cause for Admission to a Community Hospital, 1989 61
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Hypertension Following Orthotopic Cardiac Transplantation, 1989 2
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Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension: Effects of Age and Type of Antihypertensive Agent, 1989 3
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Absence of Behavioral Differences in Young Normotensive Adults as a Function of Parental History of Hypertension, 1990 4
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Outcome of Renal Crisis in Systemic Sclerosis: Relation to Availability of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, 1990 5
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Hypertension, Creatine, and Plasma Renin Activity in Heart Transplant Recipients, 1990 6
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Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Design Effects and Treatment Effects, 1991 7
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Who Really Determines Your Patients' Prescriptions, 1991 8
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Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, 1991 9
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Behavioral Sequelae of Antihypertensive Therapy: A Review, 1991 10
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The Confusing Syndromes of Cardiovascular Autonomic Imbalance: Cardiovascular Dysautonomias, 1988-1989 11
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Neurobehavioral Effects of Antihypertensive Medications, 1991 12
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Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1992 13
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Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Setting-Specific Effects, 1992 14
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Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recording: Value in Patient Care, 1992 15
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Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recording: Value in Patient Care [RESTRICTED], 1992 16
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Illness and Death in American Presidents, 1992 17
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Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1994 18
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Editorials for the Bulletin of the Allegheny County Medical Society, 1993-1996 19
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Is the Effect of Stress Management on Blood Pressure Just Regression to the Mean?, 1994 20
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A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Prophylactic Nifedipine on Renal Function in Patients Administered Contrast Media, 1994 21
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A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Prophylactic Nifedipine on Renal Function in Patients Administered Contrast Media [RESTRICTED], 1994 22
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Cardiac Transplantation: A Quarter Century of Progress, 1994 23
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Reversible Nephrotic Syndrome Due to High Renin State in Renovascular Hypertension, 1995 24
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Blood Pressure and Behavioral Effects of Antihypertensive Medications: A Preliminary Report, 1995 25
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Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, 1995 26-27
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Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring [RESTRICTED], 1995 28
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Systolic Hypertension in Critical Aortic Stenosis and the Effect of Valve Replacement, 1996 29
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Hypertension and Neuropsychological Performance in Men: Interactive Effects of Age, 1996 30
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Management of Hypertension with Particular Attention to the Renin-Angiotensin System, 1995 31
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Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1997 32
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Cerebral Blood Flow in Hypertensive Patients: An Initial Report of Reduced and Compensatory Blood Flow Responses During Performance of Two Cognitive Tasks, 1998 33
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Psychological Factors in Hypertension: An Overview, 1998 34

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Series  V. Book Drafts and Materials, 1991-1996 

Scope and Content Notes

This series includes draft materials from the book, Perspectives in Behavioral Medicine: Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, co-edited by Shapiro and Andrew Baum, and draft materials from Shapiro's monograph,  Hypertension and Stress: A Unified Concept. Both books, published in the 1990s, represent the culmination of hypertension research from Shapiro's professional career. Documents are arranged chronologically.

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Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, 1991 71
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Hypertension and Stress: A Unified Concept, 1992-1996 2-6

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Series  VI. Personal Papers, 1942-1998 

Scope and Content Notes

This series is divided into two subseries: Military Records and Correspondence. Scope and Content Notes are included with each subseries.

Subseries  1. Military Records, 1942-1953 

This subseries includes records, certificates, and orders from Shapiro's time in the United States Army. Shapiro was drafted into the U.S. Army Enlisted Reserve Corps in May 1943 while he was still a medical student. He completed medical school in September 1944, entered a medical internship until July 1945, and finished his residency in April 1946. He was then sent to Fort Sam Houston, TX for military medical training, and afterward served in the hospital at the Army Air Base in Adak, Alaska until October 1947. In 1950, Shapiro received notification that he was to be inducted into Selective Services because his previous service had been terminated earlier than usual. It was ultimately determined that he was not required to serve additional time in the military - this series includes correspondence regarding this matter. These documents are arranged chronologically.

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Subseries  2. Correspondence, 1953-1981  (Bulk, 1974-1979)

This subseries includes personal and professional correspondence from Shapiro's time as associate dean for Academic Affairs (1971-1975) and then vice chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school (1975-1979). Much of the correspondence is with colleagues in the medical profession regarding publications and conferences. There is also correspondence related to academic affairs at the medical school, and significant correspondence with University of Pittsburgh campus parking authorities about the difficulties of parking on campus.

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Series  VII. Photographs, 1948-1991 

The photographs in this series include group photographs of University of Pittsburgh's Medical School faculty, pictures of Shapiro teaching and in his office, and several professional portraits of Shapiro.

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