Guide to the Donald C. Stone Papers relating to the United Nations , 1943-1949 AIS.1971.04

ULS Archives & Special Collections

Summary Information

Repository
ULS Archives & Special Collections
Title
Donald C. Stone Papers Relating to the United Nations
Creator
Stone, Donald Crawford, 1903-
Collection Number
AIS.1971.04
Date [inclusive]
1943-1949
Extent
4.0 linear feet (8 boxes)
Abstract
Donald C. Stone was an accomplished U. S. statesman and policy-maker. Charters, manuals, reports, budgets, schedules and professional correspondence represent Stone’s roles in the U. S. State Department, Bureau of the Budget; and as a member of U. S. delegations to various entities of the United Nations organization, particularly the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions. Documents describe the role of the United States government in the formation and early development of the United Nations.

Preferred Citation

Donald C. Stone Papers relating to the United Nations, 1945 - 1949, AIS.1971.04, Archives & Special Collections, University of Pittsburgh Library System

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Biography

Donald Stone was an eminent U. S. statesman and international policy advisor, who gained notoriety for applying the scientific management principles of private enterprise to government institutions, and earned respect through a commitment to reasonable and accountable government. His career as a public servant spanned the Depression and WWII eras, shaping domestic and foreign policy under the Roosevelt and Truman administrations. Stone’s service with the State Department included formatting procedures for the Public Works Administration and planning and implementing the Works Progress Administration. He helped draft the original charters of the United Nations and the United Nations Economic, Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and his efforts were instrumental in the success of the Marshall Plan in rebuilding Europe after the Second World War.

Donald Crawford Stone was born in Cleveland, Ohio on June 17, 1903. He received a B. A. from Colgate University in 1925, an M. S. from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University in 1926, and post-graduate degrees from the University of Cincinnati and Columbia. He received an honorary Doctor of Laws (LL. D.) from George Williams College in 1953, and again from Colgate in 1960.

Stone began his career in public service conducting research studies for the City of Cincinnati, and acted as director of research for the International City Managers Association at the University of Chicago from 1930 - 1933. In 1933, Stone became a founding partner of the private consulting firm Public Administration Service (PAS), a long-standing corporation providing policy analysis and implementation strategies for municipal, state, and national governments, worldwide. In the mid-1930’s, Stone guided the merger of formerly separate organizations to form the American Public Works Administration, and became its first executive director. In 1939, Stone resigned from the board of PAS (though remained an honorary trustee his whole life) to accept the position of Assistant Director in Charge of Administrative Management at the Bureau of the Budget in the U.S. State Department (1939-1948), in the Executive Office of the President. In that capacity, he concomitantly served as a member of the United Nations’ Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (1945-1949), and as a delegate to the U. S. National Commission for UNESCO (1946-1950).

In April 1948, President Truman created the Economic Cooperation Administration to oversee the disbursement of U.S. funds under the Marshall Plan, and Donald Stone was nominated as the ECA’s first Director of Administration, a post he continued to hold through that body’s transformation into the Mutual Security Agency in 1951, and again into the Foreign Operations Administration in 1953.

Stone served as president of Springfield College in Massachusetts before building the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh in 1957, as Dean emeritus, a post he held until 1968. He served on the faculty of Carnegie Mellon University’s H. J. Heinz Graduate School of Public Policy and Administration from 1975 until his retirement in 1992.

Stone was a founding member of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA), the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA), and the Society for International Development, as well as a voluntary board advisor to the International Association of Chiefs of Police. He participated on scores of national and international government advisory panels throughout his career and authored dozens of books and pamphlets on public policy and administration.

Donald C. Stone died at the age of 92 on October 19, 1995, leaving his wife, Alice Kathryn (nee Biermann), and four children, Nancy, Alice, Elizabeth, and Donald Crawford Stone, Jr.

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Scope and Content Notes

The Papers of Donald C. Stone consists of charters, manuals, reports, budgets, schedules and professional correspondence relating to operations of the U. S. State Department and the United Nations in the years 1945 –1949. There is an emphasis on budget and personnel recommendations of the United Nations’ Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions, as well as records regarding Stone’s policy advice to the U. S. delegation and the Commission for UNESCO. The collection as a whole represents a valuable record of the inception and formation of the contemporary United Nations, and the role that the United States played in world affairs at the conclusion of the Second World War.

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Arrangement

Further scope and content information is included at the series level. The papers are divided into five series:

  1. Series I. United Nations
  2. Series II. Economic and Social Council and the U. N. System of Organizations (Specialized Agencies)
  3. Series III. Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions, 1946-1948
  4. Series IV. U. S. State Department, U. S. Delegation to United Nations
  5. Series V. Special Issues and NGO Documents

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

ULS Archives & Special Collections, July 2006

University of Pittsburgh Library System
Archives & Special Collections
Website: library.pitt.edu/archives-special-collections
412-648-3232 (ASC) | 412-648-8190 (Hillman)
Contact Us: www.library.pitt.edu/ask-archivist

Access Restrictions

No restrictions.

Copyright

Permission for publication is given on behalf of the University of Pittsburgh as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained.

Custodial History

Gift of Donald C. Stone to U. S. Documents Dept. of Hillman Library in 1970. Transferred to the Archives of Industrial Society in 1971.

Acquisition Information

Gift of Donald C. Stone in 1970.

Processing Information

This collection was processed by Matt Novak in November 2004.

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Related Materials

Related Material

  • Collection of Ruth Crawford Mitchell, 1926-1980, UA.90.F12, University Archives, Archives & Special Collections, University of Pittsburgh Library System
  • Donald C. Stone Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Library.
  • Stone, Donald C., Oral history interview, Foreign Affairs Oral History Collection, Georgetown University Library.
  • Melbourne L. Spector Papers, 1946-1996, Truman Presidential Library.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Unesco.
  • United Nations.

Geographic Name(s)

  • United States -- Politics and government

Personal Name(s)

  • Stone, Donald Crawford, 1903-

Subject(s)

  • Consultants -- United States
  • Government
  • Personal papers
  • Politics

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Previous Citation

Donald C. Stone Papers relating to the United Nations, 1945 - 1949, AIS.1971.04, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

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Collection Inventory

Series  I. United Nations 

Scope and Content Notes

The Preparatory Committee of the United Nations Organization worked from 1944 -1946 to lay the foundations for the international governing body, and composed the U. N. Charter, which was signed on June, 26, 1945 by the representatives of 50 countries. The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States ratified the Charter. There are six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly and its six Main Committees; the Secretariat; ECOSOC; the Security Council; the Trusteeship Council, which oversaw states whose governance is trusted to the United Nations (and disbanded in 1991, with the independence of Papua); and the International Court of Justice (ICJ). Stone’s work with the Advisory Committee, establishing the foundations and framework of an international bureaucracy, intersected with the agendas of the Preparatory Committee and the Fifth Committee; his position in the State Department in resolving the United States’ position after WWII demanded that he be informed of the actions of the General Assembly, the Security Council, and the Economic and Social Council; and his Committee’s work developing budgets and personnel policies ranged across nearly all sectors of the United Nations organization.

Records of the Preparatory Committee and General Assembly include the establishing instruments and charters of the U.N., manuals of operation, lists of personnel, and summary records of initial meetings. Of the six U.N. Committees, records of the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian, and Cultural) and the Fifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary) are included. Third Committee records relate to the relocation of international refugees, and records of the Fifth Committee describe establishing policies regarding departmental budgets and personnel.

The Secretariat is responsible for generating or printing the reports and official documents of all organs of the U.N., and includes separate departments for the office of the Secretary-General, the General Assembly, the ICJ, and each of the Councils. The Department of Public Information (DPI) handles documents for the General Assembly, and most U.N. press releases. Records of the Secretariat include Secretary-General’s reports, and an organizational analysis authored by Stone.

Subseries  1. Preparatory Committee 

  BoxFolder
Establishing Instruments and Committee Reports 11
  Folder
Budget Estimates, Salaries and Compensation 2

Subseries  2. General Assembly 

  Folder
U. N. Charter and Establishing Instruments 3
  Folder
Rules of Procedure and Programme of Meetings, January 1946 4
  Folder
Journals of the 1st Session of the General Assembly, January 16-February 14, 1946 5
  Folder
U. N. Manual of Operations 6
  Folder
U. N. Personnel Lists and Statistical Reports, 1946 7
  Folder
Summary of Records-Keeping in the U. N., Executive Committee 8

Subseries  3. Recommendations 

  Folder
Third Committee Reports 9
  Folder
Third Committee Press Releases 10
  Folder
Fifth Committee Summary Records of Meetings, January 12-December 20, 1946 11
  BoxFolder
Fifth Committee Reports 21
  Folder
General Assembly Resolutions adopted on Reports of the Fifth Committee 2
  Folder
Secretariat Financial Reports, 1946-1947 3
  Folder
Organizing the U. N. Secretariat, by Donald C. Stone, January 14, 1946 4
  Folder
Secretary-General Reports, 1946-1947 5
  Folder
DPI Reports of Technical Advisory Committee of Information 6
  Folder
Dept. of Economic Affairs Programmes of Work and Printing 7
  Folder
Dept. of Economic Affairs Summary and Recommendations 8
  Folder
Dept. of Security Council Affairs Programme of Work 9
  Folder
Dept. of Trusteeship Programme of Work 10

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Series  Economic and Social Council and the U.N. System of Organizations (Specialized Agencies)II. Economic and Social Council and the U.N. System of Organizations (Specialized Agencies) 

Scope and Content Notes

In addition to a number of Committees and Programmes, ECOSOC was charged with developing and ratifying the U.N. System of Organizations, a group of specialized, satellite agencies operating under the umbrella of the United Nations. Most were created as an outgrowth of the U.N.’s mission, but others came into being as separate entities with shared purposes, and were later absorbed by the U.N. Of these organizations, Donald Stone was most involved with the U.N. Economic and Social Council (UNESCO), and the U.N. Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA).

Stone was a key member of the U.S. delegation to UNESCO. The U.S. had evident national interests in helping to shape an organization with the power to influence international cultural attitudes in the post-WWII world; so much, in fact, that the State Department created the U.S. National Commission on UNESCO to cement U.S. policy relations with the organization. Stone served on the Executive Committee of the U. S. Commission; meetings were held annually at the regional level, and biannually at the national level. The UNESCO records are the most chronologically extensive in the collection, ranging from early 1946 to late 1949.

The UNRRA was founded in 1943 to provide support to refugees held by the Axis powers during WWII. Though established prior to the founding of the U.N. organization, the UNRRA received its name from President Roosevelt, who coined the term "United Nations" in 1942 to refer to the Allied powers. The UNRRA channeled billions of U.S. dollars of rehabilitation aid, and was integral to Stone’s work implementing the Marshall Plan. It ceased operations in Europe in 1947, and in Asia in 1949, upon which it ceased to exist, and its functions were transferred to other U.N. agencies, primarily the International Refugee Organization (IRO).

All documents in the UNRRA files are marked as property of—and in the case of reports, were co-authored by—Ruth Crawford Mitchell, who served as an acting consultant on repatriation assistance with the UNRRA in Egypt from 1944-1946. Mitchell was an economics professor at the University of Pittsburgh from 1924-1956, and was largely responsible for the inception and direction of the Nationality Rooms project in the Cathedral of Learning there. Stone would have had contact with Mitchell during his time as Dean of the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at Pittsburgh, 1957-1968; Stone probably came into possession of these papers early in that time. For further information, researchers may wish to consult the Collection of Ruth Crawford Mitchell, 1926-1980, UA90/F-12, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh.

As part of his work with international aid programs, Stone advised the U.S. delegation to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1945-1946, and relevant records are included in this series.

Subseries  1. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) & Specialized Agencies 

  Folder
Summaries, Work Programmes, and Personnel Reports of Related Agencies 11
  Folder
IRO and Economic Commission for Latin America Journals and Reports 12
  BoxFolder
Memoranda, Notes, and Draft Reports of Donald Stone 31

Subseries  2. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (est. 1945) 

  Folder
Preparatory Commission Minutes and Reports 2
  Folder
Establishing Instruments and Constitution 3
  Folder
Personnel, Programmes and Reports 4
  Folder
U. S. Delegation to UNESCO Personnel and Reports 5

Subseries  3. U.S. National Commission of UNESCO 

  Folder
Bylaws and General Reports 6
  Folder
Personnel Reports 7
  BoxFolder
Executive Committee Summary Reports, 1947-1948 41
  Folder
National Conference Reports, Minutes, Guides and Related Correspondence, 1946-1947 2
  Folder
National Conference Reports, Minutes, Guides and Related Correspondence, 1948 3
  Folder
Mountain-Plains Regional Conference Reports, Guides, and Related Correspondence, 1947 4
  Folder
Pacific Regional Conferences Reports, Guides, and Related Correspondence, 1948 5
  Folder
General Conference Reports and Related Correspondence, 1947-1948 6
  Folder
National Research Council Reports to U. S. Nat’l Commission on UNESCO 7
  Folder
National Commission Newsletter, August 1947-March 1949 8

Subseries  4. United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) (est. 1943) 

  BoxFolder
Personnel Regulations 51
  Folder
Directives and Reports 2

Subseries  5. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (est. 1945) 

  Folder
Est. Instruments, Programme of Work, Reports 3
  Folder
U. S. Delegation to FAO Conference Reports 4

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Series  III. Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions, 1946-1948 

Scope and Content Notes

Also referred to as "Executive Committee of Experts," "Supervisory Committee for Administrative and Budgetary Questions," "Consultative Committee on Administrative Questions," "Executive Committee," and in Preparatory Committee documents as the "6th Committee." The "ACABQ" is composed of international personnel of civic and financial executives, convened to advise the Fifth Committee of the General Assembly (Administrative and Budgetary). In this role, the Advisory Committee informed policy and budget architectures dealing with the creation of the entire U.N. bureaucracy, and the documents in this series address all of the agencies represented by other series in this collection.

Files are organized in close approximation of an outline titled "Organization of Files," authored by Donald C. Stone, and found within related Advisory Committee documents. Wherever possible, files have been arranged in the original order specified by this document. Some documents have been appropriated away from file series relating to their originating agencies; notably, Management Surveys attributed to the Bureau of Administrative Management and Budget, an office of the U.N. Secretariat; documents outlining to the election of judges to the ICJ; and newspaper clippings, correspondence, and preliminary legal agreements regarding the establishment of the U.N. Headquarters in Manhattan. The International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) was not formally established until 1974, but documents relating to its proposal by the U.S. delegation to the U.N. are included here. Correspondence ultimately handled by Donald Stone, dealing with ACABQ matters, may have originated in a variety of U.S. or U.N. government departments.

The ACABQ had its nascence in Committee Six, the Advisory Committee to the Preparatory Commission of the U.N., and relevant documents are placed in that file.

The Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions belongs to a subsidiary class of General Assembly agencies, along with the Committee for Programme and Coordination, the Committee on Contributions, and the Investments Committee. Documents are filed under "Investments" and "Contributions."

Under the heading of "Summary Records of Meetings," is a folder containing information from the Third Session, held September 22, 1948. This distinction was not made by Stone, but was evident due to an exceptional amount of contiguous, germane material, including a meeting agenda addressing recurring issues that may be cross referenced throughout the series, including the budgets of specialized agencies, the adoption of Spanish as a U. N. working language, and Security Council reports regarding the issue of Palestinian indemnity for U. N. personnel killed in the Middle East.

Subseries  1. Committee Reports and Correspondence 

  Folder
"Organization of Files" 5
  Folder
Correspondence, 1946 6
  Folder
Correspondence, 1947 7
  Folder
Correspondence, 1948 8
  Folder
Sixth Committee Reports and Correspondence, 1945-1946 9

Subseries  2. Advisory Committee Documents 

  BoxFolder
Agenda, Plan of Work 61
  Folder
Title and Functions 2
  Folder
Summary Records of Meetings, November 1946-March 1948 3
  Folder
Records of Third Session, Paris, France, September 22, 1948 4
  Folder
Drafts of Reports, 1945-1948 5
  Folder
Final Reports, 1947- 1948 6

Subseries  3. U.N. Finance 

  Folder
Budget, 1948 7
  Folder
Working Capital Fund: Advances from and Sub-funds 8
  Folder
Form of Budget, 1947-1949 9
  Folder
Financial Statements and Audit, 1947-1948 10-12
  BoxFolder
Position of the Comptroller 71
  Folder
Budgets, 1946-47 2
  Folder
Staff Regulations 3
  Folder
Personnel Reports 4
  Folder
Advisory Committee Observations to the U. N. on U. S. ICS Agency Proposal 5
  Folder
Tax Equalization 6
  Folder
Salaries and Allowances 7
  Folder
Staff Benefit Scheme 8

Subseries  4. U.N. Organization and Administration 

  Folder
Geneva and other field offices 9
  Folder
Department Workload and Programs 10
  Folder
Management Surveys, 1947 11-12
  BoxFolder
Relations with Specialized Agencies and Budgets of Specialized Agencies 81

Subseries  5. U.N. Matters 

  Folder
Permanent U. N. Headquarters 2
  Folder
Transfer of League of Nations Assets 3
  Folder
Travel Expenses and Itineraries of Delegates and Members of Commissions 4
  Folder
International Court of Justice 5
  Folder
Resolutions of the General Assembly 6
  Folder
Investments Committee 7
  Folder
Committee on Contributions 8

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Series  IV. U.S. State Department, U.S. Delegation to United Nations 

Scope and Content Notes

Stone worked in numerous positions in the State Department before being promoted to Assistant Director of the Bureau of the Budget, which had been moved into the Executive Offices in the White House under President Roosevelt, and continued there under Harry S Truman. Documents primarily lay the groundwork for a relationship between the U.S. and the United Nations. The series includes records of the U.S. delegation to the U.N. General Assembly, including statements by Donald Stone and future Democratic Presidential candidate, and U.N. ambassador, Adlai Stevenson; as well as newspaper clippings regarding a Theatre Voucher program for U.S. delegates.

  Folder
Bureau of the Budget Reports, 1948 9
  Folder
U.S. Department of State Reports on U. N. Relations 10
  Folder
U.S. Delegation Personnel, Procedure, and Provisions 11
  Folder
U.S. Delegation Summary Progress Reports, January 11-February 14, 1946 12

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Series  V. Special Issues and NGO Documents 

Scope and Content Notes

The issues represented by the documents in this series would have been considered by Stone in the course of his work with the U.S. State Department.

The Trieste Committee was formed to execute the Allies’ interests in the Free Territory of Trieste, a neutral state on the Mediterranean coast between Italy, Slovenia, and Istria. Trieste was established in 1947 as a condition of the Treaty of Peace with Italy after WWII, and was formally dissolved and divided between Italy and Yugoslavia in 1954. During that time, the territory was a home to Italian exiles and émigrés; many people of Italian descent remain in the region.

A Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is defined by the U.N. as a non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group, which is organized on a local, national or international level to address issues in support of the public good. Over a thousand lobbies and civic monitors register annually with the United Nations’ DPI.

Stone would have seen numerous NGO-authored reports, petitions, and speech transcriptions as an agent of the federal government. Related documents include a telegraphed petition to U.S. State Department, signed by, among others, physicist Albert Einstein and Ruth Crawford Mitchell, director of the University of Pittsburgh’s Nationality Rooms.

  Folder
Trieste Committee Reports and Resolutions 13
  Folder
NGO Reports and Petitions 14

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