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Using Textbooks as a Research Resource:

A Bibliography

This bibliography lists and describes some intriguing works utilizing early imprints as well as modern textbooks and schoolbooks. The coverage of this bibliography is neither authoritative nor comprehensive. It includes primarily works which were easily found within the ULS collection. Where possible, the number of items used in each study was determined through checking footnotes, and bibliographic references presented by the authors.

The literatures of various disciplines were examined to determine how scholars and researchers have used textbooks and schoolbooks as the basis of published studies. Online databases were searched; such as America: History and Life, Anthropological Index Online, ERIC, LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts, MLA International Bibliography, SocioFile (Sociological Abstracts) and Web of Science . Books listed below were identified through PittCat, the online catalog of the ULS. Older studies were identified through references or footnotes found in recent papers. Theses and dissertations are not included.


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Journal Articles

Allen, Harold D. "The Verse Problems of Early American Arithmetics." Journal of the Rutgers University Libraries 33 (1970): 49-62.

Discusses arithmetic or math problems posed in verse form, by authors such as Benjamin Workman, Zachariah Jess, Titus Bennett, Augustus R. M'Cord, Thomas Dilworth, and Joseph Cruik. Based on about 11 arithmetic or mathematics textbooks, 1781-1849.

Anyon, Jean. "Ideology and United States History Textbooks." Harvard Educational Review 49.3 (1979): 361-386.

Looks at biases related to labor and economic history in selected chapters covering 1865-1917. Based on 17 U.S. history textbooks on approved lists in New York City & Newark, NJ, 1969-1979.

Axtell, James. "Europeans, Indians, and the Age of Discovery in American History Textbooks." American Historical Review 923 (1987): 621-632.

Discusses Indians, Spanish empire, French colony in Canada as depicted in 16 popular college textbooks.

Baker, Carolyn D., and Peter Freebody. "Representations of Questioning and Answering in Children's First School Books." Language in Society 154 (1986): 451-483.

Explores literacy as transition between oral and written language as seen through sequences of conversations in beginning reading books. Uses 163 basal and supplementary readers (Australian).

Baldus, B., and M. Kassam, "’Make me truthful, good, and mild’: Values in Nineteenth Century Ontario Schoolbooks." Canadian Journal of Sociology Cahiers Canadiens de Sociologie 21.3 (1996): 327-357.

Based on the first three of each series of schoolbooks adopted in Upper Canada/Ontario primary schools, between 1846-1910; uses Irish, Royal, Canadian, and Ontario Readers. "Lesson" is the basic unit of measurement.

Belok, Michael V. "Forming the American Character: Essayists and Schoolbooks." Social Science 431 (1968): 12-21.

Examines 11 schoolbooks to for references to religion, virtue, and knowledge as forming the foundations of Americanism and republicanism.

Belok, Michael V. "Schoolbooks, Pedagogy Books, and the Political Socialization of Young Americans." Educational Studies 121 (1981): 35-47.

Discusses textbook authors Noah Webster, Daniel Staniford, Calen Bingham, and Anthony Benezet; and authors of pedagogy texts Samuel Read Hall, Orville Taylor, David P. Page, Ira Mayhew. Covers the period, 1779-1850.

Billman, Carol. "McGuffey's Readers and Alger's Fiction: The Gospel of Virtue According to Popular Children's Literature." Journal of Popular Culture 11 (1977): 614-619.

Compares McGuffey and Alger's treatments of "virtues" such as industry; rags to respectability, not rags to riches. Based on: McGuffey’s 2nd - 4th Eclectic readers; 1879 editions.

Bohning, Gerry. "The McGuffey Eclectic Readers: 1836-1986." Reading Teacher 403 (1986): 263-269.

Explores pedagogical innovations and moral themes in McGuffey readers.

Bruthiaux, Paul. "Knowing when to stop: investigating the nature of punctuation." Language & Communication 13.1 (1993) 27-43.

Reviews practices in punctuation from the 16th to the 20th Century, in about 126 textbooks many in facsimile editions.

Buckingham, B.R. "New Data on the Typography of Textbooks." Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 30th, 1931 Pt. II the textbook in American Education. 93-125.

Study on physical features of textbooks and their impact on comprehension. Based on three stories, various typefaces and line lengths. Subjects were 779 students, measuring time required for reading and comprehension.

Buswell, G.T. "A Selected and Annotated Bibliography of Literature Relating to Textbooks." Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 30th, 1931 Pt.II The Textbook in American Education. 309-323.

Includes published works from 1888-1927.

Carroll, Karen C. "Sterling, Campbell, and Albright: Textbook Publishers, 1861-1865." North Carolina Historical Review 632 (1986): 69-198.

Presents a detailed history of textbook production in the Confederacy and the need to provide works which represented values of the South as an alternative to the dominance of textbooks produced in the North.

Chall, Jeanne S. "What Students Were Reading 100 Years Ago: Selections from the Classic American Readers." American Educator 182 (1994): 26-33.

Describes the commercial republication of 19th Century works and their relevance to current pedagogy.

Coad, Oral S. "An Early American Schoolbook." Journal of the Rutgers University Libraries 33 (1970): 46-48

Discusses editions, from 1787-1802, of Miscellanies, Moral and Instructive.

Cohen, Daniel A. "The Origin and Development of the New England Primer." Children's Literature: Annual of the Modern Language Association Seminar on Children's Literature Association 5 (1976): 52-57

Describes the New England Primer and its printing history.

Davis, Thomas J. "Images of Intolerance: John Calvin in Nineteenth Century History Textbooks." Church History 652 (1996): 234-248.

Identifies traces of John Calvin in about 20 textbooks, 1809-1920. Includes works by Marcius Willson, Emma Willard, William Swinton, etc.

deCharms, Richard, and Gerald H. Moeller. "Values expressed in American children's readers: 1800-1950." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 642 (1962): 136-142.

Correlates the variables: achievement, affiliation, and moral teaching imagery, with the number of patents issued over 150 years. Based on four books per 20 year period beginning in 1800.

Eldred, Janet Carey, and, Peter Mortensen. "’Persuasion dwelt on her tongue’: Female Civic Rhetoric in Early America." College English 60.2 (1998): 175-188.

Discusses rhetoric and writing instruction in post revolutionary America based on textbooks of Early America.

Firer, R. "Human Rights in History and Civics Textbooks: The Case of Israel." Curriculum Inquiry 282 (1998): 195-208.

Examines 44 history textbooks, 23 civics textbooks, and 5 "peace education" manuals in use since 1948, for "human rights and liberties" values.

Freebody, Peter and Carolyn D. Baker. "Children's First Schoolbooks: Introductions to the Culture of Literacy." Harvard Educational Review 554 (1985): 381-398.

Uses concepts from ethnography to study the culture of schooling and literacy, such as kinship terms. Based on words in 163 basal and supplementary readers (Australian) compared to the American Heritage vocabulary.

Freebody, Peter, Carolyn D. Baker and Jan Gay. "The Use of Expressive Words in Children's First School Books." Language and Communication: An Interdisciplinary Journal 71 (1987): 25-38.

Presents a construct of an emotional world as depicted in readers. Based on 163 basal and supplementary readers (Australian), using the same sample as Freebody & Baker 1985, HER

Ganter, Granville. "The Active Virtue of The Columbian Orator." New England Quarterly 703 (1997): 463-476.

Griswold, Jerome. "Early American Children's Literature: A Bibliographic Primer." Early American Literature 182 (1983): 119-126.

Reviews early works from the Readex Microprint collection, Early American Imprints: First Series; Pre 19th Century.

Hayes, Donald P., Loreen T. Wolfer, and Michael F. Wolfe. "Schoolbook Simplification and Its Relation to the Decline in SAT Verbal Scores." American Educational Research Journal 332 (1996): 489-508.

Correlates a measure of the lexical difficulty of texts, LEX, with SAT scores and infers that simplification of texts over time may be related to the steady decline in SAT scores. Based on a sample corpus of over 1.14 million words derived from 10-30 pages from readers in major and minor publishers’ series (1000 words per sample) from over 800 readers.

Heathorn, Stephen. " 'Let Us Remember That We, Too, Are English': Constructions of Citizenship and National Identity in English Elementary School Reading Books, 1880-1914." Victorian Studies: A Journal of the Humanities, Arts and Sciences 383 (1995): 395-427.

Henkel, Nikolaus. "Printed School Texts: Types of Bilingual Presentation in Incunabula." Renaissance Studies 9:2 (1995): 212-227

Hyona, Jukka, and Others. "Primers As Socializing Agents in American and Finnish Schools." Comparative Education Review 393 (1995): 280-98.

Defines primers as socializing agents using 34 variables; based on 253 US stories and 260 Finnish stories from 12 Finnish primers (1981-1987) and 18 American primers (1981-1987) from Holt, Lippincott, Scott Foresman, Scibners, and Macmillan for grades 3-6.

Kammen, Carol. "The McGuffey Readers." Children's Literature: Annual of the Modern Language Association Seminar on Children's Literature Association 5 (1976): 58-63

Includes a biography of McGuffey, the history of McGuffey readers and relates the readers to the "back to basics" movement.

Kealey, Robert J. "The Image of the Family in Second Grade Readers." Momentum 113 (1980): 16-19.

Compares the image of family in readers to the social reality. Based on six basal readers published by Allyn and Bacon, Harcourt, Harper, Laidlaw, Macmillan and Scott Forresman.

Moore, David W., E. Jennifer Monaghan, and Douglas Hartman. "Values of Literacy History." Reading Research Quarterly 321 (1997): 90-102.

Transcribes a discussion of the history of reading and literacy by a Special Interest Group. Includes a mention of the Nietz Old Textbook Collection, University Library System, University of Pittsburgh.

Myers, Gregory. "Textbooks and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge." English for Specific Purposes 111 (1992): 3-17.

Compares scientific journal articles and science textbooks to study differences in points of view of authors and readers.

New, Elisa. "'Both Great and Small': Adult Proportion and Divine Scale in Edward Taylor's 'Preface' and The New England Primer." Early American Literature 282 (1993): 120-32.

Compares the New England Primer to themes in Edward Taylor's work.

Perlmutter, David D. "The Vision of War in High School Social Science Textbooks." Communication 132 (1992): 143-160.

Examines 6553 images in 14 textbooks from publishers marketing to the Philadelphia Public School System (Images cover the period 1942-1990; publication dates of 14 textbooks range from 1987 to 1991.)

Richardson, Robin. "The Hidden Messages of Schoolbooks." Journal of Moral Education 151 (1986): 26-42.

Categorizes texts as "Conforming," Reforming, and Transforming; based on textbooks in use about the 1980's. (Provides no bibliographic information about the specific textbooks from which quotations are taken.)

Robbins, Sarah. "Re-making Barbauld's Primers: A Case Study in the Americanization of British Literary Pedagogy." Children's Literature Association Quarterly 214 (1996-1997): 158-169.

Describes the at-home-teaching role for post-revolutionary middle class American women; based on 29 works by Mrs. Barbauld and three by Mrs. S.J. Hale.

Robbins, Sarah. "Lessons for Children and Teaching Mothers: Mrs. Barbauld's Primer for the Textual Construction of Middle Class Domestic Pedagogy." The Lion and the Unicorn: A Critical Journal of Children's Literature 172 (1993): 135-151.

Examines domestic pedagogy from a feminist perspective through works by Anna Laetitia Aikin, Dr. John Aikin, Mrs. Barbauld, and Sara Josepha Hale.

Rosenberg, Charles E. "Catechisms of Health: The Body in the Prebellum Classroom." Bulletin Of The History Of Medicine 69 (1995):175-197

Describes notions of the human body, hygiene, health found in about thirty-five 19th & early 20th Century physiology and hygiene textbooks.

Schultz, Lucille M. "Elaborating Our History: A Look at Mid 19th Century First Books of Composition." College Composition and Communication 451 (1994): 10-30.

Examines 17 first books of composition, 1838-1855, considered alternatives to more popular works.

Steuer, Loreli Olson and Susan Simonton Steddom. "From McGuffey to the Eighties: American Basic Reading Programs." Teacher 969 (1979): 58,63 64,66.

Reviews values presented in readers from 1840 to the present.

Stray, Chris. "Paradigms Regained: Towards a Historical Sociology of the Textbook." Journal of Curriculum Studies 261 (1994): 1-29.

Uses the Latin grammars of Benjamin Kennedy to discuss the history and sociology of culture.

Stray, Christopher. "Primers, Publishing, and Politics: The Classical Textbooks of Benjamin Hall Kennedy."Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 904 (1996): 451-474.

Theobald, Paul. "Country School Curriculum and Governance: The One Room School Experience in the Nineteenth Century Midwest." American Journal of Education 1012 (1993): 116-139.

Combines primary source materials with McGuffey's Newly Revised Fourth Reader and Noah Webster’s The Elementary Spelling Book to study the Mid-western one room school.

Tibbetts, A.M. "Were Nineteenth Century Textbooks Really Prescriptive?" College English 27 (1966): 309-315.

Uses excerpts from: George Campbell’s Philosophy of Rhetoric, 1776; John F. Genung’s The Practical Elements of Rhetoric, 1900; Adams Sherman Hill’s Beginnings of Rhetoric and Composition, 1902, etc. to show that language and grammar were not static, but subject to change over time; texts range in date from 1776 to 1925.

Tyack, David. "Monuments between Covers: The Politics of Textbooks." American Behavioral Scientist 426 (1999): 922-932.

Reviews controversies related to history textbooks and desire for a common "truth."

Venezky, Richard L. "A History of the American Reading Textbook." Elementary School Journal 873 (1987): 247-265.

Reviews about fifty-seven 18th-19th Century textbooks.

Venezky, Richard L. "The American Reading Script and Its Nineteenth Century Origins." Book Research Quarterly 62 (1990): 16-28.

Describes the history of readers through the work of: Samuel Wood, Willam Perry, McGuffey, Noah Webster, and Lewis Baxter Monroe.

Watters, David H. "'I Spake as a Child’: Authority, Metaphor and The New England Primer." Early American Literature 203 (1985/86): 193- 213.

Develops the theme through examination of the New England Primer; Cotton Mather; James Janeway's A Token for Children; and Thomas Whites's A Little Book for Little Children.

Zelan, Karen. "Hidden and Trick Themes: Children's Primers." Prospects: Quarterly Review of Education 161 (1986): 95-111.

Recommends using the Child's natural playfulness to reinforce the relationship between reading and natural language; based on widely usedprimers.
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Ahier, John. Industry, Children, and the Nation: An Analysis of National Identity in School Textbooks. London, New York: Falmer Press, 1988. (203 p.)

Based on about 120 history textbooks, and 107 geography textbooks, 1880-1960, from the collections of the University of London Institute of Education Textbook Library, University of Warwick's Westwood Lib. (history), University of Southampton Library (geography), Museum of Education, University of Leeds and the University Library, Cambridge.

Altschul, Charles. The American Revolution in Our School Text-books: An Attempt to Trace the Influence of Early School Education on the Feelings towards England in the United States. New York: George H. Doran Company, 1917. (168 p.)

Measures attitude toward England in treatment of the Revolutionary war in textbooks and its relation to American involvement in World War I. Based on 93 titles (1871-1916).

Anderson, Richard C., and Jean Osborn (editors). Learning to Read in American Schools: Basal Readers and Content Texts. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1984. (308 p.)

Apple, Michael W., and Linda K. Christian-Smith. The Politics of the Textbook. New York: Routledge, 1991. (290 p.)

Describes the political dimensions of textbook publishing, content, and literacy, including international aspects.

Baker, Carolyn D. Children's First School Books : Introductions to the Culture of Literacy. Oxford, UK ; New York, NY, USA: B. Blackwell in association with A. Deutsch, 1989. (254 p.)

Describes a beginning reading corpus. Appendix includes "Vocabulary contents of the Beginning Reading Corpus" including occurrence & frequency/1000 pages. Based on Australian texts, 1970-1980.

Berghahn, Volker Rolf (editor). Perceptions of History: International Textbook Research on Britain, Germany, and the United States. Leamington Spa; New York: Berg, 1987. (181 p.)

Presents several bi-national studies of textbooks considering how a nation presents its self and its views on other countries.

Croghan, Martin J. Role Models and Readers: A Sociological Analysis. Washington: University Press of America, 1980. (170 p.)

Uses sociologically framed values such as cultural and social role models and moral values, comparing textbooks of the 1960's and 1970's. Based on third grade readers in use in Illinois during the 1970's.

Ellis, Alec. Books in Victorian Elementary Schools. London: Library Association, 1971. (46 p.)

Describes the availability of books in Victorian elementary schools. Appendix includes Reading Requirements of the Education Dept., 1862-1890. Examines 29 typical books in detail.

Elson, Ruth Miller. Guardians of Tradition: American Schoolbooks of the Nineteenth Century. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1964. (424 p.)

Based on more than 1000 textbooks from the Plimpton collection, Columbia University.

Fell, Sister Marie Leonore. The Foundations of Nativism in American Textbooks, 1783-1860. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1941. (259 p.)

Examines Anti-Catholic views in 500 readers, 250 Geographies, 250 Histories, and 12 Texts on Government from the New York Public Library, Columbia Teachers College Library; Library of Congress, and the collection of the Office of Education.

FitzGerald, Frances. America Revised: History Schoolbooks in the Twentieth Century. Boston: Little, Brown, 1979. (240 p.)

Glazer, Nathan and Reed Ueda. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks. Washington D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1983. (68 p.)

Presents evidence from content analysis of 6 large format books.

Hall-Quest, Alfred Lawrence. The Textbook: How To Use and Judge It. New York: Macmillan, 1918. (265 p.)

Includes a brief history of the textbook and categories of textbooks.

Huey, Edmund Burke. The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading; with a Review of the History of Reading and Writing and of Methods, Texts, and Hygiene in Reading. New York: Macmillan, 1908. (469 p.)

Includes a history of reading and reading methods and a list of primers & readers, 1885-1900.

Johnsen, Egil Borre. Textbooks in the Kaleidoscope: A Criticial Survey of Literature and Research on Educational Texts. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press; New York: Oxford University, 1993. (455 p.)

Surveys research on, about, and using textbooks and categorizes research methodologies. Provides good coverage of European research not published in English. Notes lack of "registration" of textbooks; decries lack of cataloging of many major collections of textbooks.

Kiefer, Monica Mary. American Children through Their Books, 1700-1835. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1948. (248 p.)

Addresses the "changing status of the American child in the Colonial and early national periods" as viewed through literature for children, 1700-1835.

Luke, Allan. Literacy, Textbooks, and Ideology: Postwar Literacy Instruction and the Mythology of Dick and Jane. London; New York: Falmer Press, 1988. (224 p.)

Provides an account of the transition from literary texts to texts created on the basis of work in educational psychology, and the word lists of E.L. Thorndike. Analyzes William Gray's Fun with Dick and Jane, Our New Friends, etc. as generic and neutral in geography and culture. Relates the development of the Canadian Parade series, the work of Donalda Dickie, etc. to Canadian geography, culture, values, and nationalism.

Monaghan, E. Jennnifer. A common Heritage: Noah Webster's Blue-Back Speller. Hamden, Ct: Archon Books, 1983.

Nietz, John Alfred. The Evolution of American Secondary School Textbooks: Rhetoric & Literature, Algebra, Geometry, Natural History (Zoology), Botany, Natural Philosophy (Physics), Chemistry, Latin and Greek, French, German & World History as Taught in American Latin Grammar School, Academies and Early High Schools before 1900.Rutland, Vt: C. E. Tuttle Co., 1966.

Concentrates on describing textbooks for more advance students than those in common schools.

Nietz, John Alfred. Old Textbooks: Spelling, Grammar, Reading, Arithmetic, Geography, American History, Civil Government, Physiology, Penmanship, Art, Music, as Taught in the Common Schools from Colonial Days to 1900. Pittsburg: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961.

Categorizes and describes numerous schoolbooks, their content and relevance to the history of education.

Pierce, Bessie Louise. Civic Attitudes in American School Textbooks. Chicago, Ill.: The University of Chicago press, 1930. (297 p.)

Examines "civic education" in modern states, the reactions of American children toward people of other countries, and what other countries think of the United States. Based on 97 histories, 67 civics books, 45 geographies, 109 readers, 10 French books, 4 Italian texts, 7 Spanish texts, and 50 music books.

Pratt, David. How to find and measure bias in textbooks. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publication,1972 . (50 p.)

Provides a protocol for content analysis of textbooks.

Quillen, Isaac James. Textbook Improvement and International Understanding. Washington: American Council on Education, 1948. (78 p.)

Recommends that Unesco collect sets of history, geography, civics and other textbooks related to international understanding. Prepared for the Committee on International Education and Cultural Relations of the American Council on Education, and the United States National Commission for UNESCO.

Thorndike, Edward L. A Teacher's Word Book of the Twenty Thousand Words Found Most Frequently and Widely in General Reading for Children and Young People. Detroit: Gale Research, 1975, c1932. (182 p.)

Includes words from second and third readers, arithmetics, geography and history textbooks, including the author’s own textbooks.

Walworth, Arthur. School Histories at War: A Study of the Treatment of Our Wars in the Secondary School History Books of the United States and in Those of Its Former Enemies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1938. (92 p.)

Examines 9 American (1930-1937), 4 Canadian (1930-1937), 8 English (1929-1937), 3 Spanish (1933), and 7 German (1935-1937) textbooks for their coverage of the War of 1812, Texas and Mexico, Spanish America, and World War I.

Zimet, Sara Goodman. What Children Read in School: Critical Analysis of Primary Reading Textbooks. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1972 . (156 p.)

Collects previously published articles.
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Chapters of Books

Anderson, Thomas H. and Bonnie B. Armsbruster. "Content Area Textbooks." Learning to Read in American Schools: Basal Readers and Content Texts. Hillsdale, NJ, L. Erlbaum Associates, 1984. 193-226.

Looks at aspects of texts that prevent learning. Recommends paying attention to: Structure, Coherence, Unity, Audience Appropriateness, using excepts from 21 textbooks (1967-1980) to illustrate their learning model.

Carlson, Dennis L. "Legitimation and Delegitimation: American History Textbooks and the Cold War." Language, Authority, and Criticism: Readings on the School Textbook. London, New York: Falmer Press, 1989. 46-55.

Uses legitimation, a concept from the classical sociology of Max Weber to examine 10 history and social studies textbooks, 1978-1983.

Davison, Alice. "Readability: Appraising Text Difficulty." Learning to Read in American Schools: Basal Readers and Content Texts. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1984. 121-139.

Criticizes adoption of readability formulas to create textbooks without judgement and application of findings in psychology & linguistics. Compares original texts with versions altered on the basis of readabilty formulas.

Gilbert, Rob. "Text Analysis and Ideology Critique of Curricular Content." Language, Authority, and Criticism: Readings on the School Textbook. London, New York, Falmer Press, 1989. 61-73.

Suggests Post-structuralist approach to studying ideology in curriculum. Critiques other studies which use textbooks.

Luke, Allan. "The Secular Word: Catholic Reconstructions of Dick and Jane." The Politics of the Textbook. New York: Routledge, 1991. 166-189.

Examines 4 textbooks in the Cathedral Readers (Curriculum Foundation Series) by Rev. John A. O'Brien for evidence of Catholic orthodoxy incorporated into the reading texts.

Sleeter, Christine E. and Carl A. Grant. "Race, Class, Gender, and Disability in Current Textbooks." The Politics of the Textbook. New York : Routledge, 1991. 78-109.

Presents findings from the examination of 14 social science textbooks concluding that white males in positive roles predominate all other classes, that 15 reading & language arts textbooks represented diverse groups, but avoided social issues, and that the settings in 10 science and 8 mathematics textbooks tended to depict middle to upper class settings. Used a total of 47 textbooks with publication dates from 1980-1988.

Zimet Sara G., J. Lawrence Wiberg, and Gaston E. Blom. "Attitudes and Values in Primers from the United States and Twelve Other Countries." What Children Read in School; Critical Analysis of Primary Reading Textbooks. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1972. 99-114.

Describes development of attitude scales from a the work of J. Henry, anthropologist, to code 60 stories per country in beginning reading texts from the U.S., England, France, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Norway, Russia, South Korea, Turkey, and West Germany.

Zimet, Sara Goodman. "Values and Attitudes in American Primers from Colonial Days to the Present." What Children Read in School; Critical Analysis of Primary Reading Textbooks. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1972. 87-97.

Broadly reviews other authors' work.



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