Summary Information
Title: Alvin P. Shapiro Papers
Collection Number: UA.90.F64
Creator: Shapiro, Alvin P. (Alvin Philip), 1920-

Collection Dates: 1942-1998
Extent: 8.0 linear feet (7 boxes)

Language: English

Abstract:
Alvin P. Shapiro, a faculty member at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school (1956-1998), concentrated his research on hypertension, clinical pharmacology, and psychosomatic response with particular focus on the links between hypertension and stress, as well as renal function and hypertension related to systemic scleroderma. He was very active in the administration of the University of Pittsburgh's Medical School as well as Presbyterian University Hospital. Notably, he headed the study section of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program, which produced the first large-scale study of hypertension. Included in this collection are published and unpublished abstracts and manuscripts, research study data sheets, discussion and presentation materials, book drafts, personal military records, personal and professional correspondence, and a few photographs.
Publisher:

ULS Archives Service Center
University of Pittsburgh Library System
7500 Thomas Boulevard
Pittsburgh, PA, 15260
412-648-3232
archives-ref@mail.pitt.edu
Date Published:

October, 2010
Author:

Finding aid prepared by Katrina Milbrodt.
Biography

Alvin P. Shapiro was born on December 28, 1920 in Nashville, Tennessee, but grew up on Staten Island in New York. Throughout his career, he contributed significantly to the practice of internal medicine with his extensive research on hypertension and psychosomatic medical issues. Shapiro earned his medical degree from the Long Island College of Medicine in 1944, and spent his residency at the Goldwater Memorial Hospital in New York where he specialized in internal medicine. He then served as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps and was stationed at the Army Air Base in Adak, Alaska.

After military service, Shapiro was employed as an instructor and researcher in the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, and later at the Southwestern Medical School in Dallas, Texas. He joined the staff of the University of Pittsburgh’s Medical School in 1956, and was an active researcher and author until his death in 1998. At the University of Pittsburgh, he was the director of the psychosomatic program and chief of the clinical pharmacology/hypertension section from 1960-1971. He was the associate dean for academic affairs at the University’s medical school from 1971-1975, vice chairman of the department of medicine from 1975-1979, chief of Presbyterian University Hospital from 1977-1979, and chairman of the credentials committee from 1980-1986. From 1986-1993 he was the director of the internal medicine training program at Shadyside Hospital.

Shapiro's research focused on hypertension, clinical pharmacology, and psychosomatic response, with a particular focus on the links between hypertension and stress, as well as renal function and hypertension related to systemic scleroderma. He headed the study section of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program at UPMC, which, in the late 1970s, produced the first large-scale study in which men and women of diverse racial backgrounds were given a simple outpatient therapy for the treatment of hypertension. The initial paper that resulted from this study is considered a landmark in the field by the Journal of the American Medical Association.


Collection Scope and Content Notes

The Alvin P. Shapiro Papers document the pursuit of medical research into the causes and treatment of hypertension. Shapiro was an active physician and medical researcher from his time in the U.S. Army in the late 1940s through his tenure at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school, which ended upon his death in the late 1990s. His papers include research data as well as published and unpublished abstracts, discussions, and manuscript materials, through which changes in theories and research processes can be seen. The development of hypertension research is notably evident when examining draft revisions of articles and peer-review comments from submissions to scholarly medical journals. Shapiro’s work focused predominantly on how stress and other psychosomatic factors can affect blood pressure and also examinations of renal function and hypertension related to systemic scleroderma. The evolution, efficacy, and side effects of treatments for hypertension, including pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments, are also prominent themes in this collection.

His role as a medical educator also shaped Shapiro's research interests. This collection includes scholarly works that examine and critique medical education in the United States in the 1970s. There are also many pieces, generally written for local Pittsburgh medical community newsletters, in which Shapiro reflects on his personal experiences as a doctor, researcher, educator, and patient. Shapiro’s time as a military physician during World War II is also represented.

Conspicuously missing from the Shapiro Papers are published manuscript materials from his early career - from the 1950s through 1970. It is unclear why these documents are not a part of this collection. There are, however, unpublished materials, and materials related to published abstracts and discussions from this time period.


Arrangement

The Shapiro papers have been arranged into the following series. Extensive scope notes on each series are available in the container list.

Series I. Unpublished Abstracts and Manuscripts

Series II. Publications from Committees, Groups and Panels

Series III. Published Abstracts and Discussions

Series IV. Published Manuscripts

Series V. Book Drafts and Materials

Series VI. Personal Papers

Series VII. Photographs


Subject Terms

Topics
  • Hypertension -- Causes and theories of causation
  • Hypertension -- Prevention
  • Hypertension -- Psychosomatic aspects
  • Hypertension -- Research
  • Hypertension -- Treatment
  • Kidneys -- Diseases
  • Medical education -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • Medical teaching personnel -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • Medicine and psychology
  • Medicine, Psychosomatic
  • Physicians -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Systemic scleroderma

Corporate Names
  • Presbyterian-University Hospital of Pittsburgh.
  • Shadyside Hospital (Pittsburgh, Pa.).
  • United States. Army. Medical Corps.
  • University of Pittsburgh. School of Medicine. -- Faculty

Personal Names
  • Shapiro, Alvin P. (Alvin Philip), 1920-

Category
  • Faculty papers
  • Health and medicine
  • University of Pittsburgh

Access and Use
Access Restrictions:

Several files in this collection have been restricted because they contain the names and medical information of human study subjects. Restricted folders are identified in the contents list and are contained in Boxes 1-6. For questions about access conditions, contact the University Archivist.

Acquisition Information:

Gift of Ruth Shapiro in May 1999.

Preferred Citation:

Alvin P. Shapiro Papers, 1942-1998, UA.90.F64, University Archives, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh

Processing Information:

This collection was processed by Katrina Milbrodt in October 2010.

Copyright:

No copyright restrictions.


Collection Inventory

Series I. Unpublished Abstracts and Manuscripts, 1954-1992

Scope and Content Notes:

This section contains abstracts and manuscript draft materials that were submitted for publication in scholarly medical journals, or for inclusion in medical conferences, but were not accepted. Frequently included are letters from journal editors and peer reviewers that explain why certain submissions were rejected, or offer suggestions for revisions. When taken together with Shapiro's published materials, this section helps to provide a more complete perspective on the evolution of hypertension research and publication. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Access Restrictions:

Some files in this section include the personal and medical information of human study subjects and access is governed by certain restrictions. In Box 1, Folders 4 and 16 are restricted.


Box 1
Folder 1-2 Unpublished Abstracts, 1960-1992
Folder 3 Effect of Low Sodium on Body Fluid Distribution in Hypertension, 1954
Folder 4 Effect of Low Sodium on Body Fluid Distribution in Hypertension [RESTRICTED], 1954
Folder 5 The Blood Pressure of Unanesthetized Cats, 1954
Folder 6 Drug Therapy of Hypertension, undated
Folder 7 ACHT in Pepsinogen (Gastroenterology Research Group), 1956-1957
Folder 8 Effect of ACHT on Urine, Blood and Gastric Pepsinogen in the Rat, 1957
Folder 9 Pepsinogen Paper, 1956-1957
Folder 10 Susceptibility of Rats with Renal Hypertension to Experimental Pyelonephritis, 1960
Folder 11 The Effect of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25) on Learning in Rats, undated
Folder 12 Failure of Production Teratogenic by Chlorothiazide in Rats, 1965
Folder 13 Clyde Mood Scale Measurements on Fraternal and Identical Twins Subjected to Noxious Stimuli, 1968
Folder 14 Studies of the Role of Antibiotic Persistence in the Therapy of Experimental Pyelonephritis II., 1969
Folder 15 The Effect of the Release of Mechanical Compression to the Hindbrain by Vascular Structures on the Systemic Blood Pressure and Related Parameters in Normotensive and Hypertensive Man, 1980-1983
Folder 16 The Effect of the Release of Mechanical Compression to the Hindbrain by Vascular Structures on the Systemic Blood Pressure and Related Parameters in Normotensive and Hypertensive Man [RESTRICTED], 1980-1983
Folder 17 Angiotensin II-Induced Proteinuria: A Study of the Relative Effects of Elevated Blood Pressure and Altered Glomerular Permeability, 1981-1984
Folder 18 Biobehavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Hypertension, 1982-1984
Folder 19 Chapter for Leonard White for "Placebo: Clinical Phenomena and New Insights", 1982-1983
Folder 20 New Onset of Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation: A Preliminary Report and Analysis, 1983
Folder 21 Chapter for "Handbook of Prevention", 1984
Folder 22 Quality of Life Issues in Hypertension and Antihypertensive Therapy, 1984-1985
Folder 23 Microvascular Decompression of the Medulla in Hypertension, 1985-1988
Folder 24 Reflections on Clinical Education and the Doctor of Tomorrow, 1989-1990
Folder 25 Neuropsychological Consequences of Hypertension and Its Treatment, 1990-1992
Folder 26 Relationship of Mild Diastolic Hypertension to Memory Performance, 1991

Series II. Publications from Committees, Groups, and Panels, 1979-1986

Scope and Content Notes:

Shapiro participated in multiple committees, panels, and group research studies related to hypertension. Most of the material in this series focuses on the links between stress and hypertension, stress and illness, and non-pharmacologic treatments for hypertension. Also included are three publications that resulted from the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program: a groundbreaking long-term study that was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school; it was one of the first to broadly compare instances and treatment of hypertension across gender and racial categories. The bulk of material in this series consists of copies of the published articles and transcripts of discussions, however some related correspondence and draft materials are present. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Folder 27 The Role of Stress in Hypertension, 1977-1979
Folder 28 Stress and Physical Illness, 1980-9182
Folder 29 Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Group, 1979-1984
Folder 30 The 1984 Report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, 1984
Folder 31 Nonpharmacological Approaches to the Control of High Blood Pressure, 1984-1986
Folder 32 Report on Fully Automated Blood Pressure Monitoring , 1986

Series III. Published Abstracts and Discussions, 1950-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

This series includes published abstracts, discussions, and presentations, as well as relating research study data sheets, notes, graphs, correspondence, and publication submission forms from the whole of Shapiro's professional life. Shapiro was interested in the medical issues surrounding hypertension and its treatment from very early in his career, and the documents in this series most fully illustrate the evolution of hypertension research from the 1950s through the 1990s. Many of the early materials in this series document early research and testing that link stress to increased instances of hypertension and other medical problems, particularly issues related to renal function and pyelonephritis. Later documents focus largely on the efficacy of non-pharmacologic treatments for hypertension and hypertension related to scleroderma. Also included in this section are published book reviews and letters to the editor. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Access Restrictions:

Some files in this section include the personal and medical information of human study subjects and access is governed by certain restrictions. In Box 2, Folders 28, 42, and 94 are restricted.

Folder 33 Partial Curriculum Vitae of Abstracts and Discussions, 1950-1962
Folder 34 The Effect of Sodium Intake on the Action of ACTH in Uncomplicated Essential Hypertension, 1950
Folder 35 Physiologic and Pharmacologic Studies in a Case of Pheochromocytoma, 1949
Folder 36 A Comparative Study of the Effects of Veratrum Viride on Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects, [1951]
Folder 37 A Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Several New Hypotensive Agents as Determined by their Action in Experimental Renal Hypertension and in the Human Patient, 1952
Folder 38 A Critical Evaluation of the Hypotensive Action of Hydralazine and Hexamethonium Salts in Human and Experimental Hypertension, 1953
Folder 39 The Influence of Emotional Variables in the Evaluation of Hypotensive Agents, 1953-1954
Folder 40 Relationship of Adrenalin and T Wave Inversion in the Anxiety State, 1954
Folder 41 Effect of Low Sodium Intake on Body Fluid Distribution in Hypertension, 1954
Folder 42 The Volume of the Fluid Compartments in Human and Experimental Hypertension, 1954
Folder 43 Effect of Behavioral Disturbance on Blood Pressure of Cats, 1955
Folder 44 The Pathogenesis of Hematogenous Pyelonephritis in Rats and Its Production by a Simple New Method, 1954
Folder 45 Experimental Chronic Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1955
Folder 46 Effect of Behavioral Disturbances on Blood Pressure and Related Function in the Rat, 1956
Folder 47 The Relationship of Bacterial Species to the Pathogenesis of Hematogenous Pyelonephritis, 1956
Folder 48 Factors Influencing Development of Hypertensive Vascular Disease in Rats with Renal Injury, 1956-1957
Folder 49 Relationships of Hypertension and Renal Impairment to Experimental Chronic Pyelonephritis in Rats, 1958-1960
Folder 50 Toxicity of Proteus Urease, 1958
Folder 51 Relationships of Hypertension and Experimental Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1958
Folder 52 Hypertension and Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1959
Folder 53 Discussion (III The Renal Lesion in Pyelonephritis), 1956-1960
Folder 54 Effect of Hypotensive Drugs on the Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli, 1960
Folder 55 Presented at Montreal, March 1960, 1960
Folder 56 Comparative Studies of the Blood Pressure Responses to Different Noxious Stimuli, 1960
Folder 57 Susceptibility of Renal Hypertensive Rats to Pyelonephritis and the Predisposition of Pyelonephritic Rats to Hypertension, 1960
Folder 58 Use of Catalase Test to Detect Renal Infection in Hypertension, 1961
Folder 59 Increased Susceptibility to Pyelonephritis During Acute Hypertension by Angiotensin, 1962
Folder 60 Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli in Hypertensive Patients: Effect of Reserpine and Chlorothiazide, 1961-1962
Folder 61 Increased Susceptibility to Pyelonephritis during Acute Hypertension by Vasoconstrictor Agents, 1962
Folder 62 Effect of Angiotensin II on Renal Hypertensive Rats, 1963
Folder 63 Effect of Diabetes on Pressor Responses to Noxious Stimuli, 1963
Folder 64 Pyelonephritis and Hypertension: Experimental and Clinical Studies, 1963
Folder 65 Social Determinants in the Use of Supportive Drugs, 1962-1963
Folder 66 Discussion - NKDF - 14th Annual Conference, Angiotensin Systems and Experimental Diseases, Undated
Folder 67 Questions and Answers: Respiratory or Pharyngeal Infections and Pyelonephritis, 1963
Folder 68 Questions and Answers: Pyelonephritis and Hypertension, 1964
Folder 69 Comparison of Pathways of Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli, 1963
Folder 70 Editorial: Conference on Psychological Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, 1964
Folder 71 Catalase Test in the Detection of Urinary Infection in Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients, 1964
Folder 72 The Occurrence of Malignant Hypertension and Renal Insufficiency in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Diffuse Scleroderma), 1964
Folder 73 Determinants of Cardiovascular Responsiveness to Ischemic Pain, 1963-1964
Folder 74 Timberline Conference Discussion, 1964
Folder 75 Council for High Blood Pressure Research Discussion: Blood Pressure and Toxemia in Pregnancy, 1963
Folder 76 A Metabolic Change Secondary to Restraint, 1963-1964
Folder 77 Lipolytic Activity of Rat Adipose Tissue, 1964
Folder 78 Evaluation of Antibiotics in Acute Pyelonephritis in Rats, 1965
Folder 79 A Lipolytic Activity of Rat Adipose Tissue, 1965
Folder 80 The Nature of Renal Involvement in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma), 1965
Folder 81 Diagnostic and Physiologic Implications of the Angiotensin Infusion Test, 1965

Box 2
Folder 1 Adrenergic Correlates to Pressor Responsivity, 1964
Folder 2 Hyper-Responsivity to Angiotensin Induced in Rats by Stress, 1965-1966
Folder 3 Crout Discussion, Undated
Folder 4 Renal Content of Renin-Like Material and Pressor Reactivity of Rats with Chronic Pyelonephritis, 1966
Folder 5 Amphoteric Oxytetracycline in the Therapy of Experimental Acute Pyelonephritis in the Rat, 1966
Folder 6 Effect of B-Blockage on Blood Pressure Reactivity and Its Adrenergic Correlates in Mild Hypertensives, 1966-1967
Folder 7 An Analysis of the Variability of Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, and Catecholamine Responsiveness to Noxious Stimuli in Identical and Fraternal Twins, 1966-1967
Folder 8 B-Glucuronidase Excretion in Renal Homotransplant, 1967
Folder 9 Renal Penetration of Insoluble and Soluble Tetracycline in Experimental Pyelonephritis, 1968
Folder 10 Hemodynamic and Humoral Factors in Renal Electrolyte Cycles, Undated
Folder 11 Psychophysiologic Considerations in Blood Pressure Responses, 1967
Folder 12 Postural Effects on Renal Electrolyte Cycles, Undated
Folder 13 Double Blind Comparison of Ethacrynic Acid and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertension, Undated
Folder 14 In Consultation, 1969
Folder 15 Questions and Answers: Management of Benign Essential Hypertension, 1969-1970
Folder 16 Peripheral Renin Activity in Renal Parenchymal Disease with Hypertension, 1969
Folder 17 Effect of High Sodium Intake on Blood Pressure of Rats with Experimental Pyelonephritis, 1969
Folder 18 Mechanism of Nocturia in Primary Aldosteronism, 1969
Folder 19 Indigotinuria: An Animal Model for the Blue-Diaper Syndrome?, 1969
Folder 20 Hypoglycemia - Or Postural Hypertension?, 1970
Folder 21 Perceptual Differences Between Hypertensive and Normotensive Persons, 1970
Folder 22 Allopurinol use for Hyperuricemia in Hypertension, 1970
Folder 23 Plasma Renin Variability with Hypertension and Severe Renal Insufficiency, 1970
Folder 24 Development of Bacteriuria in a Hypertensive Population: A Seven Year Follow-up Study, 1970
Folder 25 Plasma Renin Variability with Hypertension and Severe Renal Insufficiency, 1970-1971
Folder 26 2nd Annual Conference on Automated Indirect Blood Pressure - Panel Discussion, 1971
Folder 27 Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in Renal Failure with Hypertension, 1971
Folder 28 Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in Renal Failure with Hypertension [RESTRICTED], 1971
Folder 29 Hypertension Control in the Community, 1971
Folder 30 Council for High Blood Pressure Research: Discussion, 1970
Folder 31 Discussion, Undated
Folder 32 Study of a Third Year Surgical Clerkship: An Evaluation in Progress, 1972
Folder 33 Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Response to Verbal Instruction and Relaxation in Hypertensives, 1972
Folder 34 Conference of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research: Discussion, 1972
Folder 35 Effect of Verbal Instruction and Relaxation on Blood Pressure Response and Recognition in Hypertensives, 1972
Folder 36 Blood Pressure Regulation in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, Undated
Folder 37 Letter to the Editor: Value of renal Differential Function Studies in Segmental Renal Ischemia, 1973
Folder 38 Effects of Diving on Peripheral Venous Renin Activity in the Harbor Seal, 1972
Folder 39 Discussion: Diuretic Drugs in the Treatment of Hypertension, Undated
Folder 40 Minoxidil and the Management of Severe Hypertension - A Relationship to Renal Function, 1974
Folder 41 Letter to the Editor: Hypertension and Unilateral Shrunken Kidney, 1974
Folder 42 Letter to the Editor: Hypertension and Unilateral Shrunken Kidney [RESTRICTED], 1974
Folder 43 Influence of Sodium Intake on Blood Pressure and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 1973
Folder 44 Book Review: Systemic Arterial Hypertension, 1975
Folder 45 Anglo-American Conference on Continuing Medical Education: Proceedings, April 8-10, 1974
Folder 46 Book Review, 1975
Folder 47 Book Review, 1975
Folder 48 Management of End-Stage Renal Failure Secondary to Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, 1976
Folder 49 End Stage Renal Failure Secondary to Scleroderma: Outcome of Treatment, 1976
Folder 50 Renin in Scleroderma with Malignant Hypertension, 1977
Folder 51 Letter to the Editor, 1977
Folder 52 Plasma Renin Activity (PRA) in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) with Malignant Hypertension, 1977
Folder 53 Beta-Adrenergic Blockade: A New Era in Cardiovascular Medicine: Symposium Discussion, 1978
Folder 54 Book Review, 1978
Folder 55 Questions and Answers: Unresponsive Hypertension in Middle-Aged Man, 1978
Folder 56 Mild Hypertension Meeting: Discussion, 1977
Folder 57 Effects of Chronic Diuretic Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in Elderly Patients with Systolic Hypertension (SH), 1980
Folder 58 Physician Approach to Controversial Issues in Hypertension, 1980
Folder 59 Letter to the Editor, 1980
Folder 60 Book Review, 1980
Folder 61 Behavioral Consequences of Mild Hypertension, 1980
Folder 62 Behavioral Consequences of Mild Hypertension, 1981
Folder 63 Factors Predicting the Development of Renal Involvement in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (PSS), 1981
Folder 64 Response of Patients with Progressive Systemic Sclerosis to Antihypertensive Therapy, 1981
Folder 65 Response of CBF to Treatment in Elderly Patients with SH, 1981
Folder 66 Book Review, 1981
Folder 67 Stress and Hypertension: a Clinical Challenge, 1980
Folder 68 Nonpharmacologic Intervention: Discussion, 1982
Folder 69 Letter to the Editor, 1982
Folder 70 Book Review, 1982
Folder 71 Letter to the Editor, 1982
Folder 72 Behavioural techniques not a substitute for the physician and his drugs, says Shapiro, 1983
Folder 73 BP Variability: No Change with Age, Type, Severity or Treatment of Hypertension, 1982
Folder 74 Book Review, 1983
Folder 75 New Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation, 1983
Folder 76 Book Review, 1983
Folder 77 Book Review, 1983
Folder 78 Letter to the Editor, 1983-1984
Folder 79 Essential Hypertension - Pathogenetic Suggestions from Repeated Hemodynamic Investigations in Young Men With Blood Pressure Elevation, 1984
Folder 80 In Memoriam: Gerald P. Rodnan, 1984
Folder 81 Letter to the Editor, 1984
Folder 82 Relaxation, Pharmacotherapy and Their Interaction in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension, 1984
Folder 83 Biobehavioral Approaches to Hypertension: Relaxation Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Their Interaction, 1984
Folder 84 Reversing the Effects of Elevated Blood Pressure on the Central Nervous System by Antihypertensive Treatment, 1984
Folder 85 The Response of Cyclosporine Toxicity to Azathioprine and Reduced Cyclosporine Dose, 1985
Folder 86 Similarities and Differences in Test-Taking Behaviors by Hypertensive and Normotensive Subjects, 1985
Folder 87 Minoxidil in Once-a-Day Triple Therapy for Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypertension, 1985
Folder 88 Nocturnal Blood Pressure Decrease, Cardiac Transplantation and Diabetes with Autonomic Neuropathy, 1985
Folder 89 The Contrasting Effects of Cyclosporin-A and Azathioprine on Arterial Blood Pressure and Renal Function Following Cardiac Transplantation, 1985
Folder 90 Blood Pressure Monitoring and Pill Placebo: Experiences with Two Different Methods of Inducing Nonspecific Treatments Effects for Mild Hypertensives, 1986
Folder 91 Letter to the Editor, 1986
Folder 92 Hypertension, Creatine, and Plasma Renin Activity in Heart Transplant Recipients, 1986
Folder 93 Renal Artery Stenosis in Blacks, 1986
Folder 94 Renal Artery Stenosis in Blacks [RESTRICTED], 1986
Folder 95 Cholesterol Emboli: Relation to Cardiac Catheterization and a Review of Its Clinical Presentations, 1988
Folder 96 Book Review, 1988
Folder 97 Can Self-Help Methods Cure Disease? Treating Illness with Behavioral Medicine, 1988
Folder 98 Relation of Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Treatment Outcomes, 1989
Folder 99 Ambulatory Blood Pressure: Value in Patient Care, 1990
Folder 100 AIDS Victims Helped, 1990
Folder 101 Point/Counterpoint: Are diuretics appropriate as first-line therapy for hypertensives with a family history of diabetes?, 1990
Folder 102 Behavioral Therapies for Hypertension: Current Status, 1990
Folder 103 Neuropsychological Performance of Hypertensive and Normotensive Males, 1991
Folder 104 Book Review, 1991
Folder 105 Behavioral Therapies for Hypertension: Current Status, 1991
Folder 106 Age and Hypertension Independently Slow Cognitive Transformation, 1992
Folder 107 Temperature Biofeedback-assisted Relaxation: A Treatment for White Coat Hypertension?, 1991
Folder 108 Letter to the Editor, 1992
Folder 109 Stress Management with Hypertension: Regression to the Mean and Setting Specific Effects, 1992
Folder 110 Neurobehavioral Effects of Antihypertensive Medications in Hypertensive Men, 1992
Folder 111 Letter to the Editor, 1993
Folder 112 Antihypertensive Drugs Show Age-Dependent Effects on Short Term Vigilance, But Not Working Memory, 1994
Folder 113 Neuropsychological Performance of Untreated, Male Hypertensives: Effects of Age, Education, and Alcohol Consumption, 1994
Folder 114 Letter to the Editor, 1995
Folder 115 Neuropsychological Sequelae of Antihypertensive Medications, 1996
Folder 116 Neuropsychological Performance Effects of Antihypertensive Medications, 1996
Folder 117 Clinical Trials in the 90s and Beyond, 1996
Folder 118 A "Biased View": Current Drugs in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension, 1997
Folder 119 Ruminations from Two Curmudgeons, 1997
Folder 120 Book Review, 1997

Series IV. Published Manuscripts, Bulk, 1971-1998 1961-1998

Scope and Content Notes:

This series contains published manuscripts and relating draft materials, research data sheets, graphs, notes, correspondence, publication submission forms, peer-review documents, and publication proof materials from the latter majority of Shapiro's professional career. During this time, Shapiro's research continued to examine the relationship between stress and hypertension, hypertension and renal function related to systemic scleroderma, as well as pharmacologic and behavioral treatments to control hypertension. Throughout this period, Shapiro was also becoming more involved with the administration of the University of Pittsburgh's medical school, Presbyterian University Hospital, and Shadyside Hospital, where he served, at various times, as dean for academic affairs, chairman of the credentials committee, and director of the internal medicine training program respectively. His service in these capacities is reflected in several publications that critique medical training at universities and hospitals. Documents are arranged chronologically.

Access Restrictions:

Some files in this section include the personal and medical information of human study subjects and access is governed by certain restrictions. In Box 2, Folders 125 and 127 are restricted. In Box 3, Folders 5, 7, 20, and 26 are restricted. In Box 4, Folders 21 and 23 are restricted. In Box 5, Folders 4 and 12 are restricted. In Box 6, Folders 16, 22, and 28 are restricted.

Folder 121 Effect of Thiazides on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Patients with Hypertension, 1961
Folder 122 Patterns of Pressor Response to Noxious Stimuli in Normal, Hypertensive, and Diabetic Subjects, 1963
Folder 123 Differences in Perception Between Hypertensive and Normotensive Populations, 1971
Folder 124 Development of Bacteriuria in a Hypertensive Population: A 7-year Follow-up Study, 1971
Folder 125 Development of Bacteriuria in a Hypertensive Population: A 7-year Follow-up Study [RESTRICTED], 1971
Folder 126 Technique of Controlled Drug Assay in Hypertension. V. Comparison of Hydrochlorothiazide with a New Quinethazone Diuretic, Metolazone, 1971
Folder 127 Technique of Controlled Drug Assay in Hypertension. V. Comparison of Hydrochlorothiazide with a New Quinethazone Diuretic, Metolazone, [Raw Data], [RESTRICTED], 1971
Folder 128 Studies of Antibiotic Persistence in the Therapy of Experimental Pyelonephritis: Insoluble Tetracyclines in Normal and Pyelonephritic Rats, 1971
Folder 129 The Role of Psychosocial Factors in the Development of Arteriosclerosis in CBA Mice, 1971
Folder 130 Comparison of Ethacrynic Acid and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertension, 1971

Box 3
Folder 1 Malignant Hypertension Following Renal Artery Branch Obstruction, 1972
Folder 2 Behavioral Approach to the Study of Cardiovascular Disease in Man, 1972
Folder 3 Essential Hypertension - Why Idiopathic?, 1973
Folder 4 Effects of Practolol on Pressor Responses to Noxious Stimuli in Hypertensive Patients, 1973
Folder 5 Effects of Practolol on Pressor Responses to Noxious Stimuli in Hypertensive Patients [RESTRICTED], 1973
Folder 6 Comparison of Pressor and Adrenergic Responses Derived from Direct and Indirect Methods of Cardiovascular Testing, 1973
Folder 7 Comparison of Pressor and Adrenergic Responses Derived from Direct and Indirect Methods of Cardiovascular Testing [RESTRICTED], 1973
Folder 8 Long-term Study of Relationships Between Blood Pressure, Age, and Body Weight in Steel Mill Workers, 1973
Folder 9 Hypertension: Where do we go from here?, [1973]
Folder 10 Mechanisms of Blood Pressure Elevation in Pyelonephritic Rats After Sodium Loading, 1973
Folder 11 Perspectives on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Hypertension, 1974
Folder 12 The Use of Behavioral Objectives in the Development and Evaluation of a Third-year Surgical Clerkship, 1974
Folder 13 Effect of Intermittent Electric Shock on Plasma Renin Activity in Rats, 1974
Folder 14 Blood Pressure and Heart-Rate Response to Verbal Instruction and Relaxation in Hypertension, 1974
Folder 15 The Impact of Curricular Change on Performance on National Board Examinations, 1974
Folder 16 In Memoriam: I. Arthur Mirsky, M.D., 1975
Folder 17 Relationships of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Sodium Balance to Blood Pressure Regulation in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 1975
Folder 18 Blood Pressure Regulation in Chronic Renal Failure of Polycystic Kidney Disease, 1974
Folder 19 Relationships of Perception, Cognition, Suggestion and Operant Conditioning in Essential Hypertension, 1975
Folder 20 Relationships of Perception, Cognition, Suggestion and Operant Conditioning in Essential Hypertension [RESTRICTED], 1975
Folder 21 Presidential Address - 1975: Before the Colors Fade, 1975
Folder 22 Blood Pressure Regulation During Chronic Renal Failure Due to Polycystic Renal Disease, 1974
Folder 23 Treatment of Severe Hypertension with Minoxidil, 1975
Folder 24 Guest Editorial: The leaning ivied tower, 1976
Folder 25 Renal Arterial Stenosis and Hypertension II. Current Criteria for Surgery, 1976
Folder 26 Renal Arterial Stenosis and Hypertension II. Current Criteria for Surgery [RESTRICTED], 1976
Folder 27 Behavioral Methods in the Treatment of Hypertension: A Review of Their Clinical Status, 1977
Folder 28 Hypertensive Encephalopathy with Cortical Blindness, 1977
Folder 29 Effects of Hemodialysis and Saline Loading on Body Fluid Compartments, Plasma Renin Activity and Blood Pressure in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis, 1977
Folder 30 Hypertension in Radiation Nephritis, 1977
Folder 31 Behavioral Approaches to the Treatment of Hypertension, 1978
Folder 32 Cardiovascular Diseases: Psychosomatic Aspects, 1976
Folder 33 Hypertension - Current Management: Parts I and II, 1977
Folder 34 Non-Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension, 1978
Folder 35 The Utility Function of Antihypertensive Therapy: Discussion, 1978
Folder 36 Treatment of Severe Hypertension, 1978
Folder 37 Behavioral and Environmental Aspects of Hypertension, 1978
Folder 38 Non-A, Non-B Types: A Parable for Behaviorists, 1979
Folder 39 Pathophysiology of Stress-Induced Hypertension, 1979
Folder 40 Behavioral Medicine Approaches to Hypertension: An Integrative Analysis of Theory and Research, 1979
Folder 41 Hypertension: Where we are now, 1980

Box 4
Folder 1 Proteinuria and Nephrotic Syndrome Induced by Renin in Patients With Renal Artery Stenosis, 1980
Folder 2 Behavior Modification: Can it Control Hypertension, 1980
Folder 3 Universities, Medical Schools, and Hospitals - Can They Coexist?, 1981
Folder 4 Complications of Antihypertensive Therapy, 1981
Folder 5 Attitudes of Physicians Concerning Controversial Issues in Hypertension, 1981
Folder 6 Increased Amphetamine Stereotypy and Longer Haloperidol Catalepsy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, Undated
Folder 7 Response of Patients with Renal Involvement by Progressive Systemic Sclerosis to Antihypertensive Therapy, 1981
Folder 8 Pathophysiological Aspects of Hypertension, 1982
Folder 9 Stress and Hypertension, 1982
Folder 10 Behavioral Consequences of Mild Hypertension, 1981
Folder 11 Cerebral Blood Flow Changes with Diuretic Therapy in Elderly Subjects with Systolic Hypertension, 1982
Folder 12 Physiological, Psychological, and Social Determinants in Hypertension, 1978
Folder 13-15 The Non-Pharmacologic Treatment of Hypertension, 1980
Folder 16 Psychological and Social Factors in Hypertension, 1981
Folder 17 Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and Pheochromocytoma: Association or Coincidence?, 1983
Folder 18-20 Hypertension and Renal Failure (Scleroderma Renal Crisis) in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, 1983
Folder 21 Hypertension and Renal Failure (Scleroderma Renal Crisis) in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis [RESTRICTED], 1983
Folder 22 New Onset of Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation: A Preliminary Report and Analysis, 1983
Folder 23 New Onset of Hypertension Following Cardiac Transplantation: A Preliminary Report and Analysis [RESTRICTED], 1983
Folder 24 Management of the Elderly Patient with Renovascular Hypertension, 1984
Folder 25 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Methods to Assess Severity of Hypertension, Variability and Sleep Changes, 1983
Folder 26 Factors Predicting the Development of Renal Involvement in Progressive Systemic Sclerosis, 1984
Folder 27 Effect of Antihypertensive Treatment on the Behavioral Consequences of Elevated Blood Pressure, 1984
Folder 28 The Relaxation Word of the Day: A Simple Technique to Measure Adherence to Relaxation, 1984
Folder 29 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase and Hexokinase in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Kidney, 1984
Folder 30 Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension, 1985
Folder 31 Temporal Relationships of Treatment with Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on the Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats, 1985

Box 5
Folder 1 Pathogenesis and Pharmacologic Management of Pseudo-Obstruction of the Bowel in Pheochromocytoma, 1985
Folder 2 Hypertension in the Elderly Part VIII: Renal Effects of Antihypertensive Drugs in the Elderly, 1986
Folder 3 Loss of Nocturnal Decline in Blood Pressure Developing After Cardiac Transplantation, 1986
Folder 4 Loss of Nocturnal Decline in Blood Pressure Developing After Cardiac Transplantation [RESTRICTED], 1986
Folder 5 Methodological Considerations in Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, 1982
Folder 6 Pharmacologic Agents as Modulators of Stress, 1986
Folder 7 The Contrasting Effects of Cyclosporin-A and Azathioprine on Arterial Blood Pressure and Renal Function Following Cardiac Transplant, 1986
Folder 8 Once-a-Day Triple Therapy with Low-Dose Minoxidil for Moderate Hypertension, 1986
Folder 9 Test-Taking Behaviors by Hypertensive and Normotensive Individuals, 1986
Folder 10 Cardiac Transplantation 1985: Hope -- Promise -- Reality, 1985-1986
Folder 11 Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Comparison of Effects with Concomitant Placebo, Diuretic, and B-Blocker, 1986
Folder 12 Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Comparison of Effects with Concomitant Placebo, Diuretic, and B-Blocker [RESTRICTED], 1986
Folder 13 Drug Therapy in Hypertension, 1985
Folder 14 Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension and Their Relationship to Personality, 1987
Folder 15 Nonpharmacologic Therapy of Hypertension in Blacks, 1987
Folder 16 The Behavioral Treatment of Hypertension: Long-Term Effects, 1987
Folder 17 Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension and Their Relationship to Personality of Patients with this Disorder, 1987
Folder 18 Hypertension in Women: Differences and Implications, 1987
Folder 19 Inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in the Management of Hypertension, 1988
Folder 20 Inhibitors of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme in the Management of Hypertension, 1984
Folder 21 Definition and Classification of Hypertension, Undated
Folder 22 Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1988
Folder 23 Patient Characteristics and Their Influence on Therapy and Its Outcome in Hypertension of the Elderly, 1987
Folder 24 Teaching Behavioral Concepts in Cardiovascular Disease with Remarks and Challenges to Medical Education, 1985
Folder 25 The Statistical Analysis of Treatment Effects in 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recordings, 1988
Folder 26 Cholesterol Emboli After Cardiac Catheterization: Eight Cases and a Review of the Literature, 1988
Folder 27 Psychological Factors in Hypertension: An Overview, 1988

Box 6
Folder 1 Drug-Induced Illnesses as a Cause for Admission to a Community Hospital, 1989
Folder 2 Hypertension Following Orthotopic Cardiac Transplantation, 1989
Folder 3 Behavioral Consequences of Hypertension: Effects of Age and Type of Antihypertensive Agent, 1989
Folder 4 Absence of Behavioral Differences in Young Normotensive Adults as a Function of Parental History of Hypertension, 1990
Folder 5 Outcome of Renal Crisis in Systemic Sclerosis: Relation to Availability of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, 1990
Folder 6 Hypertension, Creatine, and Plasma Renin Activity in Heart Transplant Recipients, 1990
Folder 7 Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Design Effects and Treatment Effects, 1991
Folder 8 Who Really Determines Your Patients' Prescriptions, 1991
Folder 9 Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, 1991
Folder 10 Behavioral Sequelae of Antihypertensive Therapy: A Review, 1991
Folder 11 The Confusing Syndromes of Cardiovascular Autonomic Imbalance: Cardiovascular Dysautonomias, 1988-1989
Folder 12 Neurobehavioral Effects of Antihypertensive Medications, 1991
Folder 13 Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1992
Folder 14 Relaxation Therapy for Hypertension: Setting-Specific Effects, 1992
Folder 15 Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recording: Value in Patient Care, 1992
Folder 16 Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recording: Value in Patient Care [RESTRICTED], 1992
Folder 17 Illness and Death in American Presidents, 1992
Folder 18 Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1994
Folder 19 Editorials for the Bulletin of the Allegheny County Medical Society, 1993-1996
Folder 20 Is the Effect of Stress Management on Blood Pressure Just Regression to the Mean?, 1994
Folder 21 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Prophylactic Nifedipine on Renal Function in Patients Administered Contrast Media, 1994
Folder 22 A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Prophylactic Nifedipine on Renal Function in Patients Administered Contrast Media [RESTRICTED], 1994
Folder 23 Cardiac Transplantation: A Quarter Century of Progress, 1994
Folder 24 Reversible Nephrotic Syndrome Due to High Renin State in Renovascular Hypertension, 1995
Folder 25 Blood Pressure and Behavioral Effects of Antihypertensive Medications: A Preliminary Report, 1995
Folder 26-27 Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, 1995
Folder 28 Clinical Use of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring [RESTRICTED], 1995
Folder 29 Systolic Hypertension in Critical Aortic Stenosis and the Effect of Valve Replacement, 1996
Folder 30 Hypertension and Neuropsychological Performance in Men: Interactive Effects of Age, 1996
Folder 31 Management of Hypertension with Particular Attention to the Renin-Angiotensin System, 1995
Folder 32 Renal Involvement in Systemic Sclerosis, 1997
Folder 33 Cerebral Blood Flow in Hypertensive Patients: An Initial Report of Reduced and Compensatory Blood Flow Responses During Performance of Two Cognitive Tasks, 1998
Folder 34 Psychological Factors in Hypertension: An Overview, 1998

Series V. Book Drafts and Materials, 1991-1996

Scope and Content Notes:

This series includes draft materials from the book, Perspectives in Behavioral Medicine: Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, co-edited by Shapiro and Andrew Baum, and draft materials from Shapiro's monograph, Hypertension and Stress: A Unified Concept. Both books, published in the 1990s, represent the culmination of hypertension research from Shapiro's professional career. Documents are arranged chronologically.


Box 7
Folder 1 Behavioral Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease, 1991
Folder 2-6 Hypertension and Stress: A Unified Concept, 1992-1996

Series VI. Personal Papers, 1942-1998

Scope and Content Notes:

This series is divided into two subseries: Military Records and Correspondence. Scope and Content Notes are included with each subseries.

Subseries 1. Military Records, 1942-1953

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries includes records, certificates, and orders from Shapiro's time in the United States Army. Shapiro was drafted into the U.S. Army Enlisted Reserve Corps in May 1943 while he was still a medical student. He completed medical school in September 1944, entered a medical internship until July 1945, and finished his residency in April 1946. He was then sent to Fort Sam Houston, TX for military medical training, and afterward served in the hospital at the Army Air Base in Adak, Alaska until October 1947. In 1950, Shapiro received notification that he was to be inducted into Selective Services because his previous service had been terminated earlier than usual. It was ultimately determined that he was not required to serve additional time in the military - this series includes correspondence regarding this matter. These documents are arranged chronologically.

Subseries 2. Correspondence, Bulk, 1974-1979 1953-1981

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries includes personal and professional correspondence from Shapiro's time as associate dean for Academic Affairs (1971-1975) and then vice chairman of the Department of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh's medical school (1975-1979). Much of the correspondence is with colleagues in the medical profession regarding publications and conferences. There is also correspondence related to academic affairs at the medical school, and significant correspondence with University of Pittsburgh campus parking authorities about the difficulties of parking on campus.

Series VII. Photographs, 1948-1991

Scope and Content Notes:

The photographs in this series include group photographs of University of Pittsburgh's Medical School faculty, pictures of Shapiro teaching and in his office, and several professional portraits of Shapiro.