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Series VIII. Legal Topics

Scope and Content Notes:

NOW was active at every level of government and worked to eliminate sex discrimination. The organization participated in demonstrations, court cases, and proffered advice when consulted. NOW was also in constant contact with local and federal agencies designed to enforce current antidiscrimination laws. In some instances NOW was simply involved to offer support, but remained active in as many ways as possible in order to help achieve equal rights for women.

This series is divided into four subseries reflecting this involvement:

  • Subseries 1. Equal Rights Act
  • Subseries 2. Sex Discrimination in the Work Place
  • Subseries 3. EEOC and PHRC
  • Subseries 4. Other Legal Concerns

Subseries 1. Equal Rights Act

Scope and Content Notes:

In 1923, the Equal Rights Act (ERA) was written by Alice Paul, head of the National Women’s Party, and introduced into Congress by Senator Curtis and Representative Anthony later that year. The ERA was written in response to the 14th Amendment that granted equal rights to all men, but because of wording did not include women. It was reintroduced in every session of Congress from 1923 to 1970 and was buried or defeated every year. In 1971, the House of Representatives finally approved ERA without amendments, but the Senate did not approve it until 1972. Congress agreed to set an arbitrary time limit of seven years for ratification by the states. After much political action by NOW and other women’s groups, the deadline for ratification was extended to June 30, 1982. On the deadline date, ERA was stopped three states short of ratification. Because these three states failed to ratify ERA there is no federal protection for equal rights, and the bill is currently reintroduced into Congress every year. This subseries includes information on the Equal Rights Amendment, 1968-1982. Materials included are briefings, positions and statements from legislators, testimonies, mailings and correspondence, publications, newsclippings, and information from campaigns and rallies attempting to extend the deadline for ratification.

Folder 19 House and Senate Votes, 1971
Folder 20 HJ Resolution 208, 1971
Folder 21 Harrisburg Hearing Notes, 1971
Folder 22 Amendment Analysis, 1976-1978
Folder 23 ERA Briefing, 1978
Folder 24 Bayh Amendment, 1978
Folder 25 Legal History, 1973-1975
Folder 26 Illinois Laws and Legislators, 1979
Folder 27 Division 35 and ERA, 1978
Folder 28 McGovern and ERA, 1972
Folder 29 Names and Issues in senate, 1978
Folder 30 House Resolution 638, 1978
Folder 31 Letters to State Congressmen, 1978
Folder 32 Tally Sheet, 1978
Folder 33 Senate Voting Records, 1978
Folder 34 Letters From Legislators, 1978
Folder 35 ERA Extension Resolution, 1978
Folder 36 Correspondence Between Legislators and NOW, 1978
Folder 37 Bumpers Mailing, 1978-1979
Folder 38 Mailing Lists, 1978
Folder 39 ERA Congressional Remarks, 1970-1978

Box 22
Folder 01-05 Testimonies
Folder 6 John Mack Carter, 1970
Folder 7 Norman Dorsen, 1970
Folder 8 Catherine East, 1970
Folder 9 Thomas Emerson, 1970
Folder 10 Carol Forbes, 1970
Folder 11 Paul Freund, 1970
Folder 12 Fred Harris, 1972

Section: S.I. Hayakawa

Folder 14 Aileen Hernandez, 1971
Folder 15 Leo Kanowitz, 1970
Folder 16 Elizabeth Koonts, 1972
Folder 17 Judith L. Laws, 1971
Folder 18 Margery C. Leonard, 1970
Folder 19 Ethel Ernest Murrell, 1970
Folder 20 Ester Polen, 1972
Folder 21 Marguerite Rawalt, 1970
Folder 22 Bernice Sandler, 1970
Folder 23 Other Testimonies, 1977-1978
Folder 24 ERA Supporters/Extension Boycotts, 1978
Folder 25-26 Various Mailings, 1970-1972
Folder 27 Public Relations, 1976
Folder 28 Support Correspondence, 1976
Folder 29 Mailing Campaign, 1978
Folder 30-31 ERA and the Draft, 1971
Folder 32 ERA Impact, 1971
Folder 33 Matter of Justice and ERA, 1971-1972
Folder 34 ERA Ratification, 1972
Folder 35 National Now Efforts, 1972-1974
Folder 36 Recession, 1974
Folder 37 More Perfect Union, The Report of the National Commission on the Observance of International Women’s Year, 1976

Box 23
Folder 1 The Humanist, 1978
Folder 2 ERA Reports, 1978
Folder 3 Media Campaign, 1978
Folder 4 Issue Information, 1978
Folder 5 Protective Laws, 1978
Folder 6 ERA State of Emergency, 1979
Folder 7 Is ERA Necessary?, 1979
Folder 8 ERA Missionary Project, 1982
Folder 9 New York Times Magazine, 1970
Folder 10-12 Passage and Ratification Clippings, 1970-1978
Folder 13-14 Extension Clippings, 1978
Folder 15 Editorials, 1974-1975
Folder 16 Articles, 1986-1987
Folder 17 Position Papers, 1970
Folder 18-19 Anti-ERA Information, 1973-1979
Folder 20-21 APA Conventions and Campaigns, 1975-1978
Folder 22-23 Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Bills of Special Interest to Women, 1971
Folder 24 ERA and Catholics, 1978
Folder 25 Council for Women’s Rights, 1978
Folder 26 Homemakers and ERA, 1978
Folder 27 KNOW and ERA, 1970
Folder 28 Male VIP’s, 1970
Folder 29 ERA and Mormons, 1979-1981

Section: Nebraska NOW

Section: RA NOW YES

Folder 32 NOW and Politics, 1975
Folder 33 NOW ERA Countdown Campaign, 1982

Box 24
Folder 1 State of Emergency Campaign, Washington, 1978
Folder 2 Permission Forms, 1978
Folder 03-04 Pennsylvania Campaign, 1973-1978
Folder 5 Professional Women’s Caucus, 1970
Folder 6 ERA and Religion, 1973
Folder 7 Richmond Bus, 1978
Folder 8 Missouri NOW ERA Lawsuit, 1978
Folder 09-10 Campaign at State Levels, 1974
Folder 11 Social Action, 1978
Folder 12 Social Security, 1973
Folder 13 Supporters, 1974
Folder 14 Unions, 1974
Folder 15 Oklahoma Campaign, 1982
Folder 16 Equal Rights, 1968-1970
Folder 17 Ratification Groups, 1968-1972
Folder 18 May 7th Demonstration, 1969
Folder 19 March on the Post Office, 1978
Folder 20 July 9th Demonstration, 1979

Subseries 2. Sex Discrimination in the Work Place

Scope and Content Notes:

Sex discrimination in the workplace, specifically in job advertisements, hiring, and actual positions held once hired, was a particular interest of Evansgardner and Gardner and they participated in several court cases surrounding these issues. Most notable are NOW v. Pittsburgh Press, Cease v. A & P, Weeks v. Bell, and Sharon Johnson v. University of Pittsburgh. NOW v. Pittsburgh Press was a court case in the early 1970’s dealing with sex discrimination in want ads. NOW fought to compel the Pittsburgh Press to eliminate discriminatory headings because want ads were being published under headings listing gender qualifications and, within these headings, were stereotypical job ads. For example, technical jobs were listed under the "Male" heading while clerical jobs were listed under the "Female" heading. On the rare occasion that a job was listed under both headings, there were significant differences in pay scales. Cease v. A & P and Weeks v. Bell were two cases, also in the 1970’s, in which women were being discriminated against after they were hired. The two companies were discriminating in the areas of: job classification, compensation, seniority, promotions, scheduling and overtime, benefits and terms and conditions of employment. Sharon Johnson v. University of Pittsburgh was a case in the 1970’s concerning the issue of tenure denial based on gender. This subseries includes research, correspondence, laws, ordinances and guidelines, press, and statements and positions.

Folder 21 Correspondence and Clippings, 1969-1970
Folder 22-27 Reports on the Division of Employment Advertisements Based on Sex, 1969-1970
Folder 28 Pittsburgh Press Correspondence and Clippings, 1972
Folder 29 Pitt News Announcement and Advertisements, 1969
Folder 30-33 Clippings- Employment Discrimination Based on Sex, 1969-1972
Folder 34-35 New York Times Clippings, 1971-1975

Box 25
Folder 01-05 Clippings- Employment Discrimination Based on Sex, 1969-1972
Folder 06-10 Documentation, Correspondence and Articles about Sex Discrimination in Want Ads, 1969
Folder 11-13 Female Government Employee Studies, 1967-1968
Folder 14 Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, Correspondence, 1969
Folder 15 Letters to Local Corporations Who Place Help Wanted Ads, 1969
Folder 16 Gerry Gardner to the Editor of the Pittsburgh Press, 1971
Folder 17 Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission to Pennsylvania Governor, 1973
Folder 18 Letters to Pittsburgh Press, 1969-1970
Folder 19 Gerry Gardner to University of Pittsburgh, 1969-1973
Folder 20 Want-Ad Segregation across U.S., 1973-1974
Folder 21 Ordinances and Guidelines, 1969
Folder 22 Pittsburgh Ordinance, 1969
Folder 23 Case Judgment, 1971
Folder 24 Supreme Court and Commonwealth Court of Pennsylvania Decision, 1971-1973
Folder 25 Common Pleas Court of Allegheny County Decision, 1971-1972
Folder 26 Human Relations Ordinances, 1967
Folder 27-28 Employment Discrimination Ordinances from Other Cities, 1969
Folder 29-31 Legislation, 1965-1970

Box 26
Folder 1 Sex Discrimination, 1969
Folder 2 U.S. House Bills and Petitions, 1969
Folder 3 History of Pittsburgh Press Case, 1985
Folder 4 Demonstration Handout, 1969
Folder 05-10 Correspondence and Clippings Concerning Case, 1969-1972
Folder 11 Pittsburgh Press Exhibit, 1969
Folder 12 Gerald H.F. Gardner Law Correspondence and Statements, 1974
Folder 13 EEOC Guidelines, 1967-1969
Folder 14 NOW Report to the Human Relations Commission, 1969
Folder 15-20 Legal correspondence and Petitions, 1972-1977
Folder 21 A & P Seniority Lists, 1972
Folder 22 Mailing Lists, 1977
Folder 23 Phone Lists, undated
Folder 24 Pamphlets, 1978
Folder 25 Records of Meetings, 1972
Folder 26-29 Correspondence Regarding Case, 1972-1978
Folder 30 Clippings and Newsletters, 1979
Folder 31 Case Notes, 1978
Folder 32 CEASE Public Relations, 1978
Folder 33 PHRC Reports and Correspondence, 1978
Folder 34 Legal Documents, 1972
Folder 35 National Labor Relations Board, undated

Box 27
Folder 1 Equal Employment Study, 1968
Folder 2 Federal Contract Compliance Orders, 1969
Folder 03-04 EEOC v. AT&T, 1970
Folder 5 AT&T Rates and Employment for Pittsburgh, 1970
Folder 6 Case Statement, Bell Telephone, 1971
Folder 7 Supervisors Training, 1970
Folder 8 Action Coordinators, 1970
Folder 9 Helen Reig Correspondence, 1971
Folder 10 George Sape Correspondence, 1971
Folder 11 Case Planning Notes, 1971
Folder 12 Protest Mailings, 1971
Folder 13 NOW Plan for Case, 1971
Folder 14 Documents, Correspondence, and Memos, 1971
Folder 15 Decision, 1971

Section: Press Releases ,1971

Folder 17 Clippings, 1971-1973
Folder 18 NOW Chapter Actions, 1971
Folder 19 Bell Telephone Company of PA, 1971-1974
Folder 20 Telephone Rate Structure Report, 1972
Folder 21 Affirmation Action Plan for SW PA Bell, 1972
Folder 22 Utility Complaint Forms, 1972
Folder 23 Correspondence and Settlement Documents, 1973
Folder 24 PHRC v. Rueben H. Donnelly Corporation and Bell Telephone, 1973
Folder 25 NOW against Phone Company Discrimination, 1971
Folder 26 Bell Affirmation Action Model Plan, 1973
Folder 27 Statement, 1970
Folder 28 AT&T Information, 1970
Folder 29 Nelson, Bell Telephone Co. Conciliation Agreement, 1973
Folder 30 Legal Documents, 1973
Folder 31-32 Court Records, 1973-1977
Folder 33 Heinz Letter for Sharon Johnson, 1971
Folder 34-38 Correspondence and Clippings, 1971-1977
Folder 39 Ina Braden, 1967
Folder 40 Hew Clippings, 1971
Folder 41 Committee for Affirmative Action in Universities, 1975

Subseries 3. EEOC and PHRC

Scope and Content Notes:

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission (PHRC) are two organizations that work to eliminate discrimination based on sex, color, race, or religion. When a person has a complaint toward an employer or other individual, these organizations work to investigate the charge. If it is determined that discrimination did, in fact, occur, it is the responsibility of these associations to enforce antidiscrimination laws. While the EEOC works on the federal level, complaints must be reviewed by local organizations before they can legally conduct their own investigations. In the early 1970s, NOW accused PHRC of improperly handling investigations, encouraging complainants to accept lower results, and discriminating against its own employees. As a result of this accusation, an appeal to investigate PHRC was presented to Governor Thornburgh. This subseries includes general information, complaints, and information relating to the investigation of PHRC.

Section: Women’s Labor Law

Folder 43 Correspondence, 1969-1971

Box 28
Folder 01-02 Correspondence/Articles, 1969-1976
Folder 3 Carswell Nomination Statement, 1970
Folder 4 Miscellaneous Clippings, 1970
Folder 5 Female Employment Statistics, 1970-1974
Folder 6 PA NOW and Employment Discrimination, 1970-1973
Folder 7 Job Rights for Women in Pennsylvania, 1972
Folder 8 Available Positions, Pittsburgh Area Businesses, 1972
Folder 9 Corporate Advertisements from GE and Quality Inn, 1973
Folder 10 Employment Clippings, 1974
Folder 11-13 Allegheny county Budget and Employment Stats, 1974
Folder 14 Affirmative Enforcement Project and Affirmative Response Employment, 1976
Folder 15 Affirmative Action, Duquesne Light, 1976
Folder 16 Pittsburgh Press, Employment Advertisement Dispute, 1977
Folder 17 Changes to Labor Laws since 1966, 1977
Folder 18 Publications and Reports, 1978
Folder 19 Federal Equality Laws, 1978
Folder 20 NOW and Employment Discrimination, 1972-1978
Folder 21 Press Release, 1973
Folder 22 Laws about EEOC, 1964-1972
Folder 23 Compliance Workshop Kit, 1972
Folder 24-25 Gardner v. EEOC, 1972
Folder 26 Letters of Complaints, 1972-1973
Folder 27 Newsletter, 1973
Folder 28 EEOC Jobs, 1973
Folder 29-30 Correspondence, 1973-1974
Folder 31 Rapid Charge Processing Manual, undated
Folder 32 Supreme Court Decisions, 1974
Folder 33 EEOC Symposium, 1976
Folder 34 Miscellaneous, 1973-1975
Folder 35 Reports, 1972-1974
Folder 36 Bill Brock, 1972
Folder 37 Affirmative Action Program, 1972
Folder 38 News Release, 1973

Box 29
Folder 1 PHRC Bill of Rights, 1977
Folder 2 Staff Bulletin and Civil Service Act, 1976-1977
Folder 03-04 Committee Meeting Minutes, 1977
Folder 5 Training Program, 1978
Folder 6 Contract Compliance Program, 1975
Folder 7 Pattern and Practice Committee, 1976
Folder 08-09 Letters, Testimonies, and Pamphlets, 1974
Folder 10 Projects and Reports, 1974
Folder 11 Pittsburgh Human Relations Council, 1965-1972
Folder 12 PA State Human Relations, 1971-1972
Folder 13 Sears Roebuck and Co., 1971
Folder 14 List of PHRC Complaints, 1972-1973
Folder 15 Pittsburgh Cases Based on Sex, 1972
Folder 16 PHRC v. Nabisco, 1975
Folder 17 Mrs. Celeste R. Humphries, 1975
Folder 18 Crystal Newcomer, 1978
Folder 19 Dixie White, President of NOW, 1979
Folder 20 Mary Grom, 1978
Folder 21-22 Margaret Martin, 1977
Folder 23 Bill of Rights for Complainants to the PHRC, 1977
Folder 24 Rev. Donald W. McIlvane, 1977
Folder 25 PHRC v. Thorp, Reed, and Armstrong, 1975
Folder 26 PHRC v. City of Beaver Falls, 1974
Folder 27 New Sex Amendment to PHRC Act, undated
Folder 28 Statement- NOW to the Commissioner’s of the PHRC, 1972
Folder 29 Information on NOW wanting Investigation of PHRC, undated
Folder 30 Gerald Gardner’s Drafts of Statements, undated
Folder 31 James Simms Correspondence, 1972
Folder 32 Attacks on PHRC Clippings, 1973
Folder 33 Evansgardner Interview for Position and PHRC, 1974
Folder 34 PHRC Committee Members, 1977
Folder 35 PHRC Affirmative Action/Equal Employment Opportunity Policy Statement, 1977
Folder 36 PHRC Presentation by Joann Evansgardner, 1977
Folder 37-38 Commissioners Meeting, 1977
Folder 39 Plan of Action for Proposed PHRC Committee: Phase One, undated
Folder 40 NOW/PHRC Executive Committee, 1979
Folder 41 Letter to Governor Shapp, undated

Subseries 4. Other Legal Concerns

Scope and Content Notes:

NOW and Evansgardner were interested in all types of sex discrimination and did not limit themselves to discrimination in the workplace. They corresponded with several individuals and provided support and suggestions in a variety of situations, including sex discrimination in the public schools. They also kept current with court cases and laws and opinions related to sex discrimination throughout the 1970’s. Evansgardner also participated in several of her own court cases. After PHRC awarded a position she had applied for to a less qualified male candidate, Evansgardner accused the commission of sex discrimination. This subseries includes materials relating to legal disputes within NOW, court documents, correspondence, photos, and legal documents such as bills and orders.

Folder 42 Murphy’s Negotiations, 1972
Folder 43 Court Decisions, 1972-1973
Folder 44 Miscellaneous, 1972-1973
Folder 45 Complainants Seeking Help from NOW, undated
Folder 46 Bakke Case- Clippings, 1978
Folder 47 NOW Lawsuits Against Various Organizations, 1975
Folder 48 Eleanor Smeal, et al v. NOW, 1975
Folder 49 NOW and Karen Secrest v. PA Bureau of Employment Security, 1975
Folder 50 NOW in Various Cases, 1974-1977
Folder 51-52 Supreme Court Cases Involving NOW and Evansgardner, 1977

Box 30
Folder 01-03 Evansgardner v. Westinghouse
Folder 4 Compliance Letter, 1975
Folder 5 NOW Agreement with Westinghouse Broadcasting Co., Inc., undated
Folder 6 Pennsylvania State Board of Education, 1979
Folder 07-08 NOW Lawsuits, 1980-1981; 1986
Folder 9 Photos of Evansgardner and Mayor Caliguiri, 1977
Folder 11-12 Port Authority of Allegheny County Lawsuits, 1973-1974
Folder 13 Brown v. Brown, 1969
Folder 14 JoAnn Evansgardner’s Complaint Against Pittsburgh District Office, 1972
Folder 15 Evansgardner and the EEOC, 1972
Folder 16 Evansgardner’s Sex Discrimination Case, 1972
Folder 17 Compliance Monthly Report, 1972
Folder 18 Jameson v. TWA, 1973
Folder 19 Margaret A. Harris v. Civil Service Commission for Allegheny Police and Firemen, 1973
Folder 20-21 Oskoui vs. University of Pittsburgh; Sanday v. CMU, 1973
Folder 22 Jo Samuel v. University of Pittsburgh, 1973
Folder 23 Court Decisions, 1974
Folder 24 Sandra Wetzel and Mari Ross v. Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., 1975
Folder 25-26 Prandini v. National Tea Company, 1975-1976
Folder 27 Commonwealth Court Decision on Interrogatories, 1976
Folder 28 Commonwealth of Pa., et al v. Peter Flaherty, 1976
Folder 29 Phyllis M. Cropp v. Allegheny Ludlum Industries, 1977
Folder 30 Mary Grom v. The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company, Inc., 1977
Folder 31 Student committee to Defend Dr. Paul Nyden, 1977
Folder 32 Mary Sacriponte Arbitration Case, 1977
Folder 33 Rostker v. Goldberg, 1980
Folder 34 Supreme Court Case on Women’s Rights and Civil Rights, 1986
Folder 35-36 House Bills, 1969-1972

Box 31
Folder 1 Williams Bill Title VII, 1972
Folder 2 Pennsylvania Court Opinions about Discrimination, 1973
Folder 3 Revised Order #4, 1974
Folder 4 Ordinance 75, 1975
Folder 5 Suburb Ruling and Petition, 1977
Folder 6 Louise A. Taylor Grievance, 1977
Folder 7 Harriet Schwartz and Bonnie Price Complaint, 1977
Folder 8 House Bill 678, 1977
Folder 9 Senate Bill no. 321, 1979
Folder 10 Commission for Responsive Democracy, 1991