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Brief Biographical / Historical Sketch


The Six Nations of the Iroquois, located in the northeastern United States and southern Canada, were allied with British and American colonial forces during the French and Indian War, from 1754 to 1763. During this period of violence, the Quakers sought to keep the peace with the Indians and convened a conference to establish an agreement. Israel Pemberton, a merchant and politician, presided over the conference, which was held at his estate in Philadelphia. He made a speech focused on the necessity of maintaining peace in Pennsylvania for the safety of all inhabitants. Another instrumental figure at the conference, Andrew Montour, a lead interpreter and negotiator in Pennsylvania, assisted the Quakers and Indians in reaching an agreement. This effort ultimately failed. During the French and Indian War, Montour sided with the British in Pennsylvania and Virginia. He was later murdered after the French put a price on his head due to his influence with the Indians.