Summary Information
Title: Robert E. Butts Papers
Collection Number: ASP.2000.01
Creator: Butts, Robert E.

Collection Dates: 1908-1997
Extent: 15.0 linear feet

Language: English

Robert Earl Butts was a philosopher of science whose research interests included the work of Leibniz, Newton, Galileo, Whewell, and Kant. He spent most of his career as a faculty member at the University of Western Ontario and was active in professional organizations and publications in the history and philosophy of science. The papers consist of biographical materials, including educational documents, early writings and schoolwork, photographs, correspondence, and memorabilia; and professional materials, including correspondence, research and lecture notes, records of publications and professional organizations, and unpublished drafts.

ULS Special Collections Department
University of Pittsburgh Library System
Hillman Library, Room 363
3960 Forbes Avenue
Pittsburgh, PA, 15260
Date Published:

April 2012

Finding aid prepared by Mary Margaret Fletcher.

Robert Earl Butts was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1928 and died in 1997 in London, Ontario, Canada. After attending Manheim Township High School from 1943-1947, he earned his A.B. and A.M. in philosophy from Syracuse University in 1951 and 1952, respectively, and his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1957. He joined the philosophy department at the University of Western Ontario in 1963, where he would remain until his death. He also lectured at a number of prestigious institutions through fellowships and visiting appointments, including the University of Pittsburgh’s Center for Philosophy of Science.

Butts was an active author and researcher in the field of history and philosophy of science and was deeply involved in his professional community, maintaining close personal and professional relationships with many prominent philosophers of his time. He edited and authored monographs on Whewell, Newton, Galileo, and Kant, as well as contributing prolifically to professional journals, anthologies, and encyclopedias. He served as editor-in-chief of Philosophy of Science from 1980-1990, and was managing editor of the University of Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science from 1979 until his death. He was chairman of the Canadian National Committee of the International Union of History and Philosophy of Science from 1978 to 1991, and was an active member of many other professional organizations.

Collection Scope and Content Notes

The Robert Earl Butts Papers document Butts’ life and work as an academic in the field of scientific philosophy during the latter half of the twentieth century. Biographical materials consist of documents concerning Butts’ personal life as a son, brother, husband, father, and friend. There is particular emphasis on his early life in Pennsylvania and his education at Manheim Township High School, with a less significant amount of memorabilia relating to his later life.

The larger body of professional papers contains material concerning Butts’ active involvement in his community of academic peers. He played a leadership role in a number of national and international professional organizations and conferences, as well as writing and editing numerous publications and serving as a mentor to many of his peers and students. His papers document these and other functions that he carried out as a faculty member and philosopher.

The collection consists primarily of paper documents housed in legal-sized document boxes. Box 7 contains photographs, mostly family portraits from Butts’ early life. Box 28 contains a variety of alternative media, mainly cassette tapes and floppy disks, much of the content of which is unknown. Box 29 contains oversized documents such as diplomas and certificates. Materials are arranged either chronologically or alphabetically where possible. Untitled, undated, or miscellaneous materials are generally found at the end of the folder or file group. Additional scope and content notes are provided at the series and subseries level.


The collection is arranged into the following four series:

Series I. Biographical Materials, 1908-1997

Series II. Professional Materials, 1951-1997

Series III. Multimedia, 1972-1997

Series IV. Oversized Materials, 1947-1994

Subject Terms

  • College teachers -- Canada
  • Philosophers -- Canada
  • Philosophy, Canadian -- 20th century
  • Science -- Methodology -- History
  • Science -- Methodology -- Philosophy
  • Science -- Philosophy
  • Science -- Philosophy -- Congresses
  • Universities and colleges -- Faculty -- Canada

Corporate Names
  • Canadian Philosophical Association.
  • International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science.
  • International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Division of History of Science.
  • International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science. Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science.
  • International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science.
  • Pisa Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science. (1978)
  • Universität Konstanz.
  • University of Pittsburgh. Center for Philosophy of Science.
  • University of Western Ontario.

Personal Names
  • Butts, Robert E.
  • Mittelstrass, Jürgen

  • Lancaster (Pa.)
  • Manheim (Lancaster County, Pa. : Township)

  • University of Western Ontario series in philosophy of science

  • Correspondence
  • Photographs
  • Slides (Photographs)

Access and Use
Access Restrictions:

Portions of the collection (approximately 2 linear feet) that contain personally identifiable, private, confidential, or sensitive information have been physically removed and are closed indefinitely to public access. This includes private correspondence between Butts and his family as well as legal and medical records and material containing confidential information about students and colleagues.

Acquisition Information:

Gift of Valentine Watson Rodgers in May 2000.

Preferred Citation:

Robert Earl Butts Papers, 1908-1997, ASP.2000.01, Special Collections Department, University of Pittsburgh

Processing Information:

This collection was processed by Rebecca Crago in Summer 2010 and by Mary Margaret Fletcher in Fall 2011.


The University of Pittsburgh holds the property rights to the material in this collection, but the copyright may still be held by the original creator/author. Researchers are therefore advised to follow the regulations set forth in the U.S. Copyright Code when publishing, quoting, or reproducing material from this collection without the consent of the creator/author or that go beyond what is allowed by fair use.

Related Material:

Nicholas Rescher Papers, 1957-2005, ASP.2009.01, Special Collections Department, University of Pittsburgh

Collection Inventory

Series I. Biographical Materials, 1908-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

This series contains material related to Butts’ upbringing, his personal life, and his relationships and activities outside of the professional community. Many of the documents are from the period of approximately 1943 to 1952, which encompasses Butts’ high school and undergraduate education. During this time, he was active in school and community activities such as Key Club, theater, student government, and the high school newspaper. From 1944-1945, Butts corresponded with his brother, who was stationed on the European front of World War II. He was also an avid writer in his youth; a number of folders and notebooks in this series are dedicated to poetry and prose that Butts wrote during his high school and college years.

The material from Butts’ later life in this series is concentrated on memorabilia such as invitations and newspaper clippings pertaining both to events in Butts’ own life and current events and topics that were of interest to him. There is also a large group of brochures and guides from his travels in Europe during the 1980s and 1990s.

Subseries 1. Educational Documents, 1941-1952

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries consists of report cards and other administrative materials relating to Butts’ education at the various institutions described above. Some material, mainly consisting of diplomas and other educational certificates, has been removed due to size restrictions and placed in Box 29.

Box 1
Folder 1 Report Cards, 1941-1947
Folder 2 Educational Documents from Syracuse, 1947-1952

Subseries 2. Schoolwork and Early Writings, 1945-1957

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries documents Butts’ development as a writer and scholar from high school through his years as a graduate student at Penn and Syracuse. It includes formal assignments as well as personal reflections and creative projects. The material in this series is unpublished and predates Butts’ formal work as an academic researcher.

Folder 3 Notes and Assignments
Folder 4 Pressed Flower Collection, 1945
Folder 5 12th Grade English Notebook, 1946-1947
Folder 6 Poetry and Prose from High School and College, 1947-1949
Folder 7 Graduate School Papers, 1952-1954

Box 2
Folder 1 Poetry and Prose, 1947-1951
Folder 2 Doctoral Dissertation, Part 1: "Husserl’s Criticism of Hume’s Theory of Knowledge," University of Pennsylvania, 1957
Folder 3 Doctoral Dissertation, Part 2: "Husserl’s Criticism of Hume’s Theory of Knowledge," University of Pennsylvania, 1957
Folder 4 Master Thesis "Man in a World: The Ethics of Existentialism," Syracuse University, May 1952

Subseries 3. Memorabilia, 1908-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

The items in this subseries document the broad variety of Butt’s private activities and interests. Over the course of his life, he collected newspaper clippings documenting achievements and milestones for himself and his family, as well as some current events and general topics of interest; programs and brochures from various events he participated in or attended; and maps, brochures, and souvenirs from his travels, especially those in Europe during the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. This subseries also includes items such as report cards and yearbooks that belonged to Butts’ father and older brother.

Box 3
Folder 1 Artwork by Butts and Others
Folder 2 George Butts, Sr. School Materials, 1908-1923
Folder 3 George Butts, Sr. Lancaster High Yearbook (2 Copies), 1918
Folder 4 George Butts, Jr. School Projects
Folder 5 George Butts, Jr. School Notes
Folder 6 Clippings on George Butts, Jr.
Folder 7 Clippings on George Butts, Sr., 1937
Folder 8 Clippings on Death of Elizabeth A. Saylor Butts, 1942
Folder 9 High School Yearbook, 1947
Folder 10 High School Newspapers, 1945-1947
Folder 11 High School Certificates and Awards, 1943-1947
Folder 12 High School Invitations and Programs, 1944-1947
Folder 13 High School Current Events (Clippings)
Folder 14 High School Sports (Clippings)
Folder 15 High School Theater (Clippings)
Folder 16 High School Key Club (Clippings)
Folder 17 High School Graduation (Clippings), 1947

Box 4
Folder 1 Army Publications from World War II
Folder 2 Official Army Photographs from World War II
Folder 3 World War II Ration Books
Folder 4 Syracuse University, 1952
Folder 5 University of Pennsylvania, 1952-1957
Folder 6 Phi Sigma Tau National Honor Society for Philosophy, 1956
Folder 7 High School Reunion (Clipping)
Folder 8 Birth and Wedding Announcements and Invitations
Folder 9 Creationism (Clippings)
Folder 10 George Rockwell Visits Bucknell (Clippings), 1961-1962
Folder 11 Issues of Western News, 1990-1996
Folder 12 Lancaster Intelligencer-Journal, Grandmother's 100th Birthday, December 5, 1979
Folder 13 Personal Forecast and Life Development Chart Prepared by Irene Hughes of Astral Sciences International, 1991
Folder 14 Notes Found in Books from Butts' Personal Library
Folder 15 Event Programs, 1972-1994

Box 5
Folder 1 Souvenirs
Folder 2 Travel - Association Terre de Rhedae
Folder 3 Guidebooks
Folder 4 Maps and Brochures
Folder 5 Travel Receipts and Expense Reports, 1973-1996
Folder 6 Executive Travel London Ltd. (Correspondence and Paperwork), 1982-1985

Box 6
Folder 1 Album of Travel Brochures and Postcards

Subseries 4. Material Related to Butts' Death, 1997

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries consists mostly of correspondence that occurred between his widow and grieving family, friends, and colleagues after Butt’s sudden death in 1997. Also included are some funeral plans and copies of obituaries from various publications.

Folder 2 Letters from Valentine Watson Rodgers to Friends, Family, and Colleagues, 1997
Folder 3 Obituaries and Funeral Plans, 1997
Folder 4 Condolences (Notes and Cards), 1997
Folder 5 Condolences (Letters and Emails), 1997

Subseries 5. Personal Correspondence

Scope and Content Notes:

The correspondence in this subseries is mostly of a general nature, consisting of notes, letters, and cards that Butts exchanged with various family members and friends over the course of his life. Of particular note are the 1944-1945 letters from his older brother, who was stationed in Europe during World War II. Due to their private and/or sensitive nature, a large number of documents from this subseries are included in the restricted material described at the beginning of this finding aid.

Folder 6 Childhood Correspondence, 1935-1936
Folder 7 Correspondence with George Butts, Jr. During WWII, 1944-1945
Folder 8 General Correspondence with Friends and Family, 1982
Folder 9 High School Alumni Association, 1982-1995
Folder 10 Vendors and Organizations, 1976-1985
Folder 11 Postcards and Greeting Cards, 1942, 1983-1994
Folder 12 Christmas Cards
Folder 13 Birthday Cards (Mostly 60th), 1988

Subseries 6. Photographs

Scope and Content Notes:

Most of the photographs in this subseries are family photographs from Butts’ youth, including both studio portraits and candids, and group photos of student organizations from his time at Manheim Township High School. Images that hung framed in his office, many of them of Kant, comprise another significant portion of this subseries. Of particular note is the baby book that Butts’ parents filled out for him shortly after his birth in 1928; an infant’s knit garment in excellent condition was found tucked into the back cover and remains in the file.

Box 7
Folder 1 Portrait of Butts, Brother George, and Mother Elizabeth
Folder 2 George Butts, Sr. and Brother John Butts
Folder 3 George Butts, Sr. Holding George Butts, Jr.
Folder 4 Family Vacation
Folder 5 Class Photo, possibly of George Butts, Sr.
Folder 6 Baby Photo of "George," possibly George Butts, Jr.
Folder 7 Unidentified Baby Photos
Folder 8 Portraits of Butts and Brother George as Children
Folder 9 High School
Folder 10 High School Theater
Folder 11 High School Sports
Folder 12 Signed Portraits of Performers
Folder 13 Framed Photo: "O. Baumberger: Zwingli - Schweiz. Komission fur gute religiose Bilder"
Folder 14 Family Photos
Folder 15 Photos of Kant
Folder 16 Miscellaneous Family Photos
Folder 17 Travel Photos
Folder 18 Polaroids and Slides of Silversmith Work
Folder 19 Album of Postcards and Photos
Folder 20 Baby Book
Folder 21 Art Slides

Series II. Professional Materials, 1951-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

This series contains documents pertaining to Butts’ life and work as a researcher, author, and active member of his professional community. The papers in this series document Butt’s longtime involvement in a variety of professional activities and the respect and camaraderie he enjoyed among his academic peers. The largest portion of this series is dedicated to unpublished drafts of works authored by both Butts and his peers; he was frequently consulted as both an official referee and an informal colleague.

Researchers will notice the same names and subjects appearing in multiple locations throughout the series; this is due to the intimate nature of the field of scientific philosophy, in which the same actors appear as journal contributors, book editors, grant applicants, committee members, and close personal friends at various points in Butt’s life.

Subseries 1. Research, Writing, and Publication, 1951-1996

Scope and Content Notes:

Butts was active as both an author and editor of publications in the field of scientific philosophy. These functions are also closely related to his role as a researcher and an academic. This subseries consists of a broad variety of materials that document these interrelated professional functions. Of particular note is the extensive correspondence with authors and editors that Butts conducted in his capacity as editor of the Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science, published by Reidel and later Kluwer Academic Publishers from 1973-1996, which is arranged chronologically in Section 1 of the subseries. This is distinct from the correspondence in Section 3, which relates to individual works that Butts personally wrote or edited. Also significant is the large number of unpublished drafts of Butts’ academic work found in Section 2.

Section: 1. Publications Edited by Butts, 1973-1996

Scope and Content Notes:

This section contains two groups of material: correspondence and administrative records related to the publications that Butts oversaw, and reviews of those publications. The latter are listed according to the author of the work being reviewed.

Box 8
Folder 1 Western Ontario Series Contract (Reidel), 1973
Folder 2 Western Ontario Series Publishing Agreements (Kluwer and Reidel), 1973-1994
Folder 3 Reidel Royalty Statements, 1973-1988
Folder 4 Kluwer Royalty Statements, 1990-1992
Folder 5 Western Ontario Series Financial Records, 1973-1989
Folder 6 Western Ontario Series General Correspondence, 1974-1994
Folder 7-9 Reidel Correspondence, 1974-1980
Folder 10-12 Reidel Correspondence, 1982-1984

Box 9
Folder 1-4 Reidel Correspondence, 1985-1988
Folder 5-11 Kluwer Correspondence, 1987-1993

Box 10
Folder 1 Kluwer Correspondence, 1994
Folder 2 Kluwer Correspondence, 1996
Folder 3 Philosophy of Science Weekly Reports, 1983
Folder 4 Philosophy of Science General Correspondence, 1978-1986
Folder 5 Review of William Shea's "Basic Issues in the Philosophy of Science," 1976
Folder 6 Review of Fred Wilson's "Empiricism and Darwin's Science," 1991
Folder 7 Review of Henry B. Hollinger and Michael J. Zenzen's "The Nature of Irreversibility," 1985
Folder 8 Review of Michael Ruse's "Is Science Sexist?"
Folder 9 Review of Nicholas Rescher's "Leibniz's Metaphysics of Nature," 1981
Folder 10 Review of I.B. NacNeill and G.J. Umphrey's "Stochastic Hydrology," 1987
Folder 11 Review of C.A. Hooker, ed., Physical Theory as Logico-Operational Structure, 1979
Folder 12 Review of Larry Laudan's "Science and Hypothesis," 1981
Folder 13 Review of Graham Oddie's "Likeness to Truth," 1986
Folder 14 Review of James Robert Brown and Jurgen Mittelstrass, eds., An Intimate Relation, 1989
Folder 15 Review of James Robert Brown's "Scientific Rationality: The Sociological Turn," 1984
Folder 16 Reviews of Jürgen Mittelstrass, ed., Enzyklopadie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie
Folder 17 Review of Jürgen Mittelstrass' "Zwei Erfahrungsbegriffe"
Folder 18 Review Clippings from Reidel

Section: 2. Unpublished Drafts by Butts, 1965-1996

Folder 19 "The Appraisal of Scientific Theories: A New Use of the Internal/External Distinction" (Abstract)
Folder 19a “Comment on L. Jonathan Cohen, ‘Some Historical Remarks on the Baconian Conception of Probability’,” Author’s Proof
Folder 20 "Experience and Experiment as Regulative Principles in Methodology," 1973
Folder 21 "The Grammar of Reason"
Folder 22 "The Grammar of Reason: Hamann's Challenge to Kant," 1985
Folder 23 "Induction as Unification: Kant, Whewell, and Recent Developments," May 1992
Folder 24 "Kant and the Problem of Locating Souls," November 1985
Folder 25 "Kant on Revolutionary Changes in the Methods of the Sciences," April 1988
Folder 26 "Kant's Alleged Failure to Construct the Concepts of Fundamental Forces," May 1985
Folder 27 "Kant's Dialectic and the Logic of Illusion," May 1995
Folder 28 "Kant's Philosophy of Science: The Transition from Metaphysics to Science," 1984
Folder 29 "Kant's Proof of the Objective Reality of the Categories"
Folder 30 "Kant's Realization of 'Galileo's Program'," June 1974
Folder 31 "Kant's Theory of Musical Sound: An Early Exercise in Cognitive Science"
Folder 32 "Herschel, John Frederick William"

Box 11
Folder 1 "Leibniz on Empirical Methodology," 1983
Folder 2 "Leibniz on Choosing Between Rival Scientific Hypotheses," September 1990
Folder 3 "Leibniz on the Side of Angels," Spring 1982
Folder 4 "Metaphysical Mirages and Kant's Logic of Illusion," March 1994
Folder 5 "Metaphysics, Methodology, and the Pragmatic Unity of the Science," June 1990
Folder 6 "The Methodological Structure of Kant's Metaphysics of Science," 1984
Folder 7 "Methodological Structure of Metaphysics of Science"
Folder 8 "'Le Mouvement...n'est pas une chose entierement reele': Leibniz, Discours de Metaphysique"
Folder 9 "Necessary Truth in Whewell's Theory of Science," July 1965
Folder 10 "Orthodoxy in Philosophy of Science, 1930-1962: How Did It Come About?," January 1987
Folder 11 "Philosophers as Professional Relativists"
Folder 12 "Philosophy of Science in the Nineteenth Century"
Folder 13 "Pragmatism in Theories of Induction in the Victorian Era: Herschel, Whewell, Mach, and Mill," January 1984
Folder 14 "Proceeding Case by Case: Saving the Methodological Appearances," March-April 1984
Folder 15 "Proceeding Case by Case: Saving the Methodological Appearances" (Appendix)
Folder 16 "'A Purely Scientific Temper': Victorian Expressions of the Ideal of an Autonomous Science," April 5, 1983
Folder 17 "The Reception of German Scientific Philosophy in North America: 1930-1962," March 1996
Folder 18 "The Role of Arational Factors in Interpretive History: The Case of Kant and ESP," January 1983
Folder 19 "Rules, Examples, and Constructions: Kant's Theory of Mathematics" (2 Proofs)
Folder 20 "Science and the Humanities: A Historical and Analytical Comparison," November 1991-December 1992
Folder 21 "Spencer, Herbert"
Folder 22 "Testability"
Folder 23 "Two Stories About Evil: Christianity and the Creation of Witches," 1992
Folder 24 Untitled, Coauthored by James R. Brown
Folder 25 William Whewell's Theory of Scientific Method (Proposal and Outline)
Folder 26 "Whewell on Newton's Rules of Philosophizing," Winter 1965
Folder 27 "Whewell's Inductive Tables" (2 Copies)
Folder 28 "Whewell, William"

Section: 3. Works Authored and Edited by Butts: Correspondence and Administrative Documents, 1970-1986

Scope and Content Notes:

This section contains mainly correspondence concerning the specific publication projects and related administrative documents, not the drafts of the publications themselves.

Box 12
Folder 1 The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, ed. Audi, Cambridge University Press
Folder 2 The Canadian Encyclopedia, New Canadian Encyclopedia Publishing
Folder 3 A Companion to Metaphysics, ed. Sosa and Kim, Blackwell
Folder 4 A Companion to the Philosophy of Science, ed. Newton-Smith, Blackwell
Folder 5 Constructivism and Science: Essays in Recent German Philosophy, ed. Butts and Brown, Kluwer
Folder 6 Dictionary of Scientific Biography, ed. Gillespie, Scribner
Folder 7 The Epistemological Assumptions of Four Great Physicists, ed. John T. Blackmore
Folder 8 "The Grammar of Reason: Hamann's Challenge to Kant" in Synthese
Folder 9 The International Who's Who of Intellectuals, International Biography Center
Folder 10 Kant and the Double Government Methodology, Italian Translation by Mary Fornai
Folder 11 "Kant's Theory of Musical Sound: An Early Exercise in Cognitive Science" in Dialogue
Folder 12 Logic and the Workings of the Mind, ed. Falkenstein
Folder 13 Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, trans. Butts and Friedman
Folder 14 The Methodological Heritage of Newton, ed. Butts and Davis, University of Toronto Press
Folder 15 "On Buchdahl's and Palter's Papers" in Synthese 23, 1971
Folder 16 Philosophia
Folder 17 "Philosophy of Science in Canada" in Ruch Filozoficzny Kwartalnik
Folder 18 Project Pragmatik Published by Felix Meiner Verlag, 1982-1986
Folder 19 Reader to Nicholas Rescher's "System of Pragmatic Idealism"
Folder 20 Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Craig, Routledge
Folder 21 Science, Decision, and Value, ed. Butts, Leach, and Pearce, Reidel
Folder 22 "Sciences and Pseudosciences: An Attempt at a New Form of Demarcation" in Earman et al., ed., University of Pittsburgh Press
Folder 23 "Scientific Progress: The Laudan Manifesto" in Philosophy of Social Science
Folder 24 The Scientific Revolution: An Encyclopedia, ed. Applebaum
Folder 25 "Teleology and Scientific Method in Kant's Critique of Judgement" in NOUS
Folder 26 William Whewell's Theory of Scientific Method, ed. Butts, University of Pittsburgh Press/Hackett
Folder 27 General Correspondence re: Publishing
Folder 28 Unidentified Correspondence re: Possibility of Butts Anthology
Folder 29 Reviews of William Whewell's Theory of Scientific Method, 1969
Folder 30 Reviews of New Perspectives on Galileo, 1978
Folder 31 Reviews of Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, 1977
Folder 32 Reviews of The Methodological Heritage of Newton, 1970
Folder 33 Review of Kant's Philosophy of Physical Science, 1986

Section: 4. Kant and the Double Government Methodology: Supersensibility and Method in Kant's Philosophy of Science: Drafts, Correspondence, and Reviews, 1982-1990

Scope and Content Notes:

This section contains drafts for Butts' published work Kant and the Double Government Methodology, as well as related documents such as reviews, correspondence, and permission to publish requests.

Box 12a
Folder 1 Preface I: "An Ordinary Preface," Typescript
Folder 2 "Preface II: Points of Reference," Typescript
Folder 3 "Preface I and II," Typescript with Handwritten Corrections
Folder 4 "Introduction," Typescript
Folder 5 Chapter I: "Metaphysical Explanation in Leibniz: The Monads," Typescript
Folder 6 Chapter II: "Leibniz On the Side of Angels," Typescript
Folder 7 Chapter III: "Kant, ESP, and the Inaugural Disseration"
Folder 8 Chapter IV: "Soemmering and Euler: Space and the Soul"
Folder 9 Chapter V: "Kant: Space and the Soul"
Folder 10 Chapter VI: "Rules, Images and Constructions: Kan'ts Constructive Idealism"
Folder 11 Chapter VII: "Two Fundamental Principles of Methodology"
Folder 12 Chapter VIII: "Hypotheses in Science"
Folder 13 Chapter IX: "The Restauration of Teleology"

Box 12b
Folder 1 "Central Nervous System: Philosophers as Dieticians of the Mind"
Folder 2 Table of Contents, Preface and Excerpts
Folder 3 Chapter Fragments
Folder 4 "Seeing Ghosts: Immanuel Kant's Investigation of Mental Disorders and the Paranormal," 1982
Folder 5 Bibliography: References to Works of Kant
Folder 6 Indexes and Bibliographies for KDGM
Folder 7 Notes and Articles on Kant by Butts and Others
Folder 8 Anonymous Review of KDGM
Folder 9 Publication Guidelines by the University of Toronto Press
Folder 10 Permission Requests for KDGM, 1983-1984
Folder 11 Reviews of and Responses to KGDM, 1984-1990

Section: 5. Research, 1951-1992

Box 13
Folder 1 CVs
Folder 2 Lists of Publications and Presentations, 1984-1994
Folder 3 Material Related to CVs and Publication Lists
Folder 4 Unidentified Bibliographies and Indices
Folder 5 A Selective Bibliography on Kant by Ralph C.S. Walker, 2nd Edition, 1978
Folder 6 Bibliography of Kant Literature for 1987, Part II and for 1988, Part I
Folder 7 Bibliography of Kant Literature for 1989, Part IV
Folder 8 Bibliography of Kant Literature for 1991, Part IV and for 1992, Part II
Folder 9 A Bibliography of William Whewell, 1814-1900
Folder 10 Charts and Tables
Folder 11 Correspondence and Forms re: Research Grants, 1980-1982
Folder 12 Edward C. Pickering and the Transformation of American Astronomy, 1840-1920 (Project Description)
Folder 13 Philosophical Views of Scientific Change: The History of the Ice Age Hypothesis, 1830-1880 (Book Proposal)
Folder 14 Mechanisms of Value-Change in Science (Draft Prospectus)
Folder 15 Miscellaneous/Unidentified Notes
Folder 16 The Criterion of Cognitive (Empirical) Significance to the Verificationist Principle (Notes)
Folder 17 Mill's Argument for the Triviality of Prediction, Logic bk. III, ch. XIV, 6 (Notes)
Folder 18 Inserts 1-5 on Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and the History of Modern Natural Science (Notes)
Folder 19 A Suggested Reconstruction of the Argument of the 2nd Analogy (Notes)
Folder 20 Kant: The Four Moments of a Judgement of Taste (des Geschmacksurteils) (Notes)
Folder 21 Physics III (Notes)
Folder 22 Epistemology in the Aufbau (Notes on a Talk by M. Friedman)
Folder 23 Methodological Components of Scientific Theory (A Kantian Formulation) (Notes)
Folder 24 Notes on Similarity and Equality, 1982
Folder 25 Notes on Specification, 1983
Folder 26 Introductory Remarks on Critique of Judgement (Notes)
Folder 27 Kant, Hamann, Schelling, and Jung: The Rhetoric and Psychology of Symbolism (Notes)
Folder 28 Van Fraassen and Realism/Anti-Realism (Notes)
Folder 29 Bas's Constructive Empiricism (Notes)
Folder 30 Socialism (Notes)
Folder 31 Analysis of Meanings of Two Terms Prominent in Social and Political Thinking (Dr. Ward) (Notes)
Folder 32 Bentham (Notes), September 29, 1951
Folder 33 J.S. Mill - Essays on Nature, Utility of Religion (1859), and Theism (1870) (Notes)
Folder 34 The Perennial Social Tension: 'I' and/or 'We': An Examination Into the Pertinence of J.S. Mills' Essay on Liberty (Notes)
Folder 35 Herbert Spencer, First Principles (1864) (Notes)
Folder 36 Herbert Spencer, Transcendental Philosophy (1857) (Notes)
Folder 37 J.S. Mill - System of Logic ("The Canons of Induction" - bk. III, ch. VIII) (Notes)
Folder 38 J.S. Mill, On Liberty (Outline of Contents)
Folder 39 J.S. Mill - On the Logic of the Moral Sciences (Book VI, Logic) (Notes)
Folder 40 Mechanics - Newton, Mach, Kant (Notes)
Folder 41 Leibniz Cohesion (Notes)
Folder 42 The Conceptual Framework of Kant's Philosophy of Science (Notes)
Folder 43 Letter to Qualiton Imports, Ltd. re: Glass Harmonica Recordings, 1995
Folder 44 Introduction for David Savan: "Postmodernist Philosophy and Nietzsche" - University of Western Ontario, March 1987
Folder 45 Comments on L.L. Laudan, "William Whewell on the Consilience of Inductions"
Folder 46 Critique of Pure Reason 1781-1981, Faculty of Arts, March 10, 1981
Folder 47 The Worlds of Kant - Leibniz Conference, November 1982
Folder 48 Comments on Gregory Good, "Method, Science, and the Historical Approach" - History of Science Society, Norwalk, CT, October 1983
Folder 49 Comment: Glenn Hartz, "Kant's Mature Metaphysic of Matter" - American Philosophical Association, St. Louis, MO, May 1986
Folder 50 Comments on Michael Ruse, "William Whewell and the Argument from Design" - Canadian Philosophical Association, June 1974
Folder 51 Comments on David Wilson "A Physicist's Alternative to Materialism" - History of Science Society Annual Meeting, Norwalk, CT, October 1983
Folder 52 Comments on Paul Theerman "Maxwell and Method" - History of Science Society Annual Meeting, Norwalk, CT, October 1983

Box 13a
Folder 1 Research Notes on Whewell: Notebook I
Folder 2 Research Notes on Whewell: Notebook II
Folder 3 Research Notes on Whewell: Notebook III
Folder 4 Research Notes on Whewell: Notebook IV
Folder 5 Research Notes on Whewell: Notebook V

Subseries 2. Teaching, 1954-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

The items in this subseries document Butts’ function as an instructor and faculty member at various institutions, particularly the University of Western Ontario. The majority of the documents pertaining to the courses that Butts taught are in the form of teaching notes, handouts, and syllabi (Section 1). Also included is a small amount of correspondence and other administrative records that relate to Butts’ employment and his role as a member of the university community outside of his academic function.

Section: 1. Instructional Materials, 1968-1991

Box 14
Folder 1 Nipissing University College
Folder 2 Seminar in 19th-Century Philosophy, 1990-1991
Folder 3 Kant Seminar
Folder 4 Realism (Konstanz)
Folder 5 Seminar on Leibniz
Folder 6 Witchcraft Syllabi
Folder 7 Witchcraft Notes and Readings
Folder 8 Witchcraft Exams
Folder 9 Witchcraft (T.M. Lennon)
Folder 10 The Social Philosophy of Herbert Spencer
Folder 11 Theories of Scientific Method: Mill and Whewell, Fall 1968-1969
Folder 12 Transparencies
Folder 13 Notes from Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View
Folder 14 The Principles of Monadic Change and Its Relation to Physics (Notes), 1984
Folder 15 Leibniz' Monadology (Notes), 1984
Folder 16 Heidegger on the Leading Distinctions of the Identity Philosophy (Notes)
Folder 17 Outline of Boehme's System (Notes)
Folder 18 Kant's Theory of Scientific Method (Notes)
Folder 19 Schelling's Absolute Idealism (Notes)
Folder 20 The Two Philosophies of the Antinomies (Notes)
Folder 21 Kant and 19th-Century Views of Science (Notes)
Folder 22 Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (Notes), 1990
Folder 23 "Science and the Humanities: A Historical and Analytic Comparison" (Notes), 1991
Folder 24 "Dilthey: The Critique of Historical Reason" (Notes)
Folder 25 Nietzsche on Truth (Notes)
Folder 26 "The Mind/Body Problem: The Importance of Its Solution for the Creation of Human Sciences" (Notes), 1991
Folder 27 Schelling/Witchcraft Reading
Folder 28 Of Reasoning and Of Induction(Readings)
Folder 29 Miscellaneous/Unidentified Teaching Notes and Materials

Section: 2. Administrative Materials, 1954-1997

Folder 30 Job Applications, 1980-1987
Folder 31 Visiting Lectures/Appointments, 1982-1986
Folder 32 University of Pittsburgh, 1987-1997
Folder 33 University of Western Ontario, 1978-1996
Folder 34 Nipissing University College, 1984-1985
Folder 35 University of Konstanz, 1984-1995
Folder 36 Job Offer from St. Lawrence University (Telegram), 1954
Folder 37 Performance Reviews, 1981-1991
Folder 38 University of Oslo, 1973

Subseries 3. Professional Organizations and Conferences, 1963-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries consists of correspondence, newsletters, pamphlets, financial records, meeting minutes, and other items that document Butts’ active role in his professional community. He served on boards and in leadership positions for several of the professional organizations and conferences represented in these records, notably chairing several committees of the International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science during the 1970s and 1980s. He was particularly active in the international philosophical community, organizing and attending conferences in Europe, Canada, and the United States throughout his career.

Section: 1. Professional Organizations, 1963-1997

Box 15
Folder 1 Association for the Advancement of Science in Canada
Folder 2 Association for Foundations of Science, Language, and Cognition, 1993
Folder 2a Canadian Academic Centre in Italy, Newsletter, May 1979
Folder 3 Canadian Federation for the Humanities (CFH), 1982-1987
Folder 4 Canadian Philosophical Association (CPA), 1977-1988
Folder 5 Canadian Political Science Association Bulletin, 1978-1979
Folder 6 Canadian Science and Technology Historical Association, 1987
Folder 7 Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Science (CSHPS), 1979-1986
Folder 8 Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Science "Communique", 1979-1997
Folder 9 History of Science Society (HSS), 1985-1987
Folder 10 History of Science and Technology in Canada Bulletin, 1978
Folder 11 Interamerican Council for Research on Science Policy, 1985
Folder 12 International Committee for the History of Technology (ICOHTEC), 1977-1986
Folder 13 International Council of Scientific Unions, 1978-1980
Folder 14 International Council of Scientific Unions Newsletters, 1980-1987
Folder 15 International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (IUHPS) Brochure, 1963
Folder 16 Canadian National Committee, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (CNC/IUHPS) Minutes and Agendas, 1978-1991
Folder 17 Canadian National Committee, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (CNC/IUHPS) General Correspondence, 1978-1988

Box 16
Folder 1 Division of History of Science, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (DHS/IUHPS)
Folder 2 Division of History of Science, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (DHS/IUHPS) Bulletins, 1976-1979
Folder 3 Division of History of Science, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (DHS/IUHPS) Newsletters, 1978-1986
Folder 4 Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (DLMPS/IUHPS) General Correspondence, 1975-1982
Folder 5 Division of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (DLMPS/IUHPS) Finances and Proceedings, 1971-1985
Folder 6 Institute for the History of Arabic Science Newsletters, March 1978-September 1979
Folder 7 Leibniz Society
Folder 8 North American Kant Society
Folder 9 PRISMA
Folder 10 Progressive Conservative Task Force on Taxation, 1986
Folder 10a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada: Council Update, Jules and Gabrielle Léger Fellowship, April 1985

Section: 2. Conferences, 1969-1996

Folder 11 13th Annual Congress of the Canadian Philosophical Association, Toronto, ON, 1969
Folder 12 3rd International Kant Congress, Rochester, NY, 1970
Folder 13 Foundations of Scientific Method: The 19th Century, Bloomington, IN, 1970
Folder 14 Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Lansing, MI, 1972
Folder 15 1st International Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science, Jyvaskyla, Finland, 1973
Folder 16 The Heritage of Kant: A Conference in Celebration of the 250th Anniversary of the Birth of Kant, Kalamazoo, MI, 1974
Folder 17 Ottawa Congress on Kant, Ottawa, ON, 1974

Box 17
Folder 1 5th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, London, ON, 1975
Folder 2 5th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science Bulletins and Programs, 1975
Folder 3 Institute in the Philosophy of Science, Banff, AB, 1975
Folder 4 Workshop in the History and Philosophy of Science, Benmiller, ON, 1977
Folder 5 Conference on the Study of the History of Canadian Science and Technology, Kingston, ON, 1978
Folder 6 2nd International Colloquium on History and Philosophy of Science, Pisa, Italy, 1978
Folder 7 6th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Hanover, Germany, 1979
Folder 8 Lewis White Beck Kant Conference, Rochester, NY, 1979
Folder 9 National Seminar on Science and Technology in India in the 18th-19th Century, New Delhi, India, 1980
Folder 10 Workshop on Scientific Change, Pittsburgh, PA, 1980
Folder 11 3rd International Conference of History and Philosophy of Science, Montreal, QC, 1980
Folder 12 Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Science, Montreal, QC, 1980
Folder 13 University of Ottowa Philosophy Colloquia, 1982
Folder 14 Leibniz: The Philosophy and Foundations of Science, Toronto, ON, 1982
Folder 15 Baylor University Victorian Conference, Waco, TX, 1982
Folder 16 1st Annual Conference on Philosophy of Science, Center for Philosophy of Science, University of Pittsburgh, 1982
Folder 17 Blacksburg, Notes on Niiniluoto and Others, 1982
Folder 18 Conference on 1883, Toronto, ON, 1983
Folder 19 7th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Salzburg, Austria, 1983
Folder 20 Latin American Symposium of Mathematical Logic, Caracas, Venezuela, 1983
Folder 21 Philosophy of Science Association (PSA), Chicago, IL, 1984
Folder 22 Learned Societies Conference, Montreal, QC, 1985
Folder 23 Thought and Language in Enlightened Philosophy: An International Conference in 17th and 18th Century Philosophy, Toronto, ON, 1985
Folder 24 17th International Congress of History of Science, Berkeley, CA, 1985
Folder 25 6th International Kant Congress, State College, PA, 1985
Folder 26 Learned Societies Conference, Manitoba, 1986
Folder 27 On the Leibniz Renaissance: The Reasons for Contemporary Interest in Leibniz' Thought, Florence, Italy, 1986
Folder 28 Conference on the History and Philosophy of Science, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1986
Folder 29 International Committee for the History of Technology (ICOHTEC) "Dresden Symposium", 1986
Folder 30 "The Dubrovnik Seminars," Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, 1987
Folder 31 8th International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Moscow, USSR, 1987
Folder 32 Oxford CPS Conference, Oxford, England, 1988
Folder 33 7th Joint Meeting of the Divisions of History of Science and Philosophy of Science, International Union of History and Philosophy of Science (IUHPS), Coimbra, Portugal, 1988
Folder 34 National History of Science Societies Meeting, 1989
Folder 35 Baden-Württemberg Seminars, 1989
Folder 36 Annual Congress of the Canadian Philosophical Association, Quebec, QC, 1989
Folder 37 18th International Congress of the History of Science, Hamburg and Munich, Germany, 1989
Folder 38 Learned Societies Congress, Victoria, BC, 1989
Folder 39 Spindel Conference, Memphis, TN, 1991
Folder 40 Comments on Michael Friedman: 'Regulative and Constitutive' for Spindel Conference, Memphis, TN, 1991
Folder 41 Conference on the Works of Onora O'Neill, South Bend, IN, September 1991

Box 18
Folder 1 Kant and Contemporary Epistemology, Florence, Italy, May 1992
Folder 2 Seminar for Medieval and Renaissance Studies: Witchcraft and Magic in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, London, ON, 1992
Folder 3 Logic and the Workings of the Mind, London, ON, May 1995
Folder 4 8th International Kant Congress, Memphis, TN, March 1995
Folder 5 3rd Quadrennial International Fellows Conference, Castiglioncello, Italy, 1996
Folder 6 German-American Interaction in Scientific Philosophy After 1933: An International Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 1996
Folder 7 The Methodological Heritage of Newton, London, ON
Folder 8 2nd International Conference on History and Philosophy of Science, 1973-1980
Folder 9 Hunt Workshop in History of Science
Folder 10 Materials Related to Miscellaneous and Unidentified Professional Conferences

Subseries 4. Research and Writing by Others, 1967-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

Butts played an active role as a colleague and friend to other researchers and academics in his field. He was sought after as a reviewer of academic publications and grant proposals as well as a reference for colleagues and students. The material in Section 1, which consists of applications, CVs, and correspondence, documents these functions. Both subgroups in this subseries are arranged by individual’s surname, though Section 2 consists of unpublished drafts rather than administrative materials.

Section: 1. References and Reviews, 1967-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

The items in this section are arranged by individual. Each individual's file may contain a variety of documents pertaining to Butts' role as a mentor and referee for his students and colleagues in their careers and publishing endeavors. This includes reference and referee requests, as well as applications, CVs/resumes, manuscripts, proposals, and any other material that may have been enclosed with Butts' correspondence on the subject. Note that all letters of reference and personally identifiable or confidential information have been removed and restricted.

Folder 11 Arthur, Richard, 1982
Folder 12 Amerik, Karl, 1982
Folder 13 Anderson, Abraham, 1994
Folder 14 Baigrie, Brian, 1982
Folder 15 Bakan, Mildred B., 1990
Folder 16 Brown, James Robert, 1982-1986
Folder 17 Bush, C.M. Anastasia, 1982
Folder 18 Chokr, Nadr N.
Folder 19 Collier, John, 1983
Folder 20 Curtis, R.C., 1983
Folder 21 Denis, Francois-Michel, 1982
Folder 22 DiSalle, Robert, 1995
Folder 23 Donovan, Arthur, 1984
Folder 24 Edwards, Paul, 1967
Folder 25 English, Parker, 1982-1986
Folder 26 Falkenstein, Lorne, 1986
Folder 27 Forster, Paul D., 1994
Folder 28 Foss, Jeffrey E., 1982-1983
Folder 29 Friedman, Michael
Folder 30 Notes on the Work of Michael Friedman, 1984-1989
Folder 31 Gauthier, Yvon, 1981-1982
Folder 32 Good, Gregory Alan, 1983
Folder 33 Hahlweg, Kai, 1980-1986
Folder 34 Hanson, Norwood Russell
Folder 35 Hattiangadi, Jagdish N., 1985
Folder 36 Hudson, Robert G.,
Folder 37 Jobe, Evan K., 1990
Folder 38 Johnstone, Albert A., 1982
Folder 39 Khalidi, Muhammed Ali, 1996
Folder 40 Kitcher, Patricia, 1990
Folder 41 Laudan, Larry, 1982
Folder 42 Lauxterman, P.F.H.

Box 19
Folder 1 Lennon, Thomas M., 1983
Folder 2 Levy, Edwin, 1982
Folder 3 Lugg, Andrew
Folder 4 Malik, Muhammed Abdul, 1988
Folder 5 Manukian, Edward, 1983
Folder 6 Meerbote, Ralf, 1979
Folder 7 Mukherjee, Ramkrishna
Folder 8 Nickles, Thomas, 1982
Folder 9 Niiniluoto, Ilkka
Folder 10 Po-Keeing, 1986
Folder 11 Rescher, Nicholas, 1991-1997
Folder 12 Rothbart, David, 1984
Folder 13 Ruse, Michael
Folder 14 Sassen, Brigitte, 1993
Folder 15 Savage, Wade, 1984
Folder 16 Shea, William, 1986-1987
Folder 17 Stevens, Wesley M., 1988
Folder 18 Wilson, David B., 1983
Folder 19 Unidentified Research Proposals
Folder 20 Miscellaneous Referee Requests, Work or Author Not Specified
Folder 21 Administrative Materials and Correspondence re: Refereeing

Section: 2. Unpublished Drafts by Others, 1968-1996

Folder 22 Agassi, Joseph, "Science is Real and Ideal: Popper and the Dogmatic Scientist"
Folder 23 Alavoutunki, Jouni, "An Introduction to the Study of History of Science at the University of Konstanz," 1976
Folder 24 Arthur, Richard, "Pacidius to Philalethes: First Philosophy of Motion, by G.W. Leibniz" (translation)
Folder 25 Barnes, Barry and Bloor, David, "Relativism, Rationalism, and the Sociology of Knowledge," 1980
Folder 26 Beck, Lewis White, "Kant on the Uniformity of Nature"
Folder 27 Belsey, Andrew, "Whewell on Induction," 1971
Folder 28 Bencivenga, Ermanno, "Knowledge as a Relation and Knowledge as an Experience in the Critique of Reason"
Folder 29 "Berkeley's Master Argument: Appearance and Reality," author unknown
Folder 30 Bohme, Gernot, "Kants Begriff der Materie in Seiner Schrift 'Metaphysische Anfangsgrunde der Naturwissenschaft'"
Folder 31 Bohme, Gernot, "Kant's Epistemology as a Theory of Alienated Knowledge" (2 drafts)

Box 20
Folder 1 Bradie, Michael, "Models and Metaphors in Science: The Metaphorical Turn"
Folder 2 Brittan, Gordon, "Kant's Two Grand Hypotheses"
Folder 3 Brittan, Gordon, "The Kantian Foundations of Modern Science"
Folder 4 Brown, James Robert, "Einstein's Principle Theorems," 1995
Folder 5 Brown, James Robert, "Theories of Method and Historical Evidence," 1979
Folder 6 Brown, James Robert, "Rescher's Evolutionary Epistemology," 1982
Folder 7 Brown, James Robert, "Thought Experiments Since the Scientific Revolution," 1986
Folder 8 Brown, Jim, "Comments on the Occasion of the Presentation of An Intimate Relation to Robert E. Butts"
Folder 9 Buchdahl, Gerd, "Kant's 'Special Metaphysics' and the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science" (3 drafts)
Folder 10 Buchdahl, Gerd, "A Logical Articulation of Kant's Transcendental Structure"
Folder 11 Buchdahl, Gerd, "A Key to the Problem of Affection"
Folder 12 Buroker, Jill Vance, Reviews of Her Space and Incongruence: The Origin of Kant's Idealism
Folder 13 Carrier, Martin, "What is Wrong With the Miracle Argument?," 1990
Folder 14 Carrier, Martin, "Kants Theorie der Materie und ihre Wirkung auf die zeitgenössische Chemie"
Folder 15 Copp, David and Levy, Edwin, "Value Neutrality in the Techniques of Policy Analysis: Risk and Uncertainty," 1982
Folder 16 Dickens, Charles, "Old Lamps For New Ones" (typescript)
Folder 17 Doering, Michael, "Consilience as a Mark of True Theories"
Folder 18 Dryer, D.P., "On Two Arguments for the Principle of Causality Said to be Found in Kant"
Folder 19 Duncan, Howard, "Kant, Buroker, and the Problem of Incongruent Counterparts"
Folder 20 Duncan, Howard, "Kant's Methodology: Progress Beyond Newton?" (2 drafts), 1985
Folder 21 Duncan, Howard, "Constructions and Their Discovery," 1984

Box 21
Folder 1 Eells, Ellery, "Bayesian Epistemology: Probabilistic Confirmation and Rational Decision"
Folder 2 Essler, Wilhelm K., "Truth and Knowledge: Some Considerations Concerning the Task of Philosophy of Science"
Folder 3 Falkenstein, Lorne, "Kant's Argument for the Non-Spatiotemporality of Things in Themselves"
Folder 4 Fisette, David, ed., Consciousness and Intentionality: Models and Modalities of Attribution
Folder 5 Forster, Malcolm R., "Whewell's Consilience of Inductions and the Reality of Component Causes," 1986
Folder 6 Forster, Paul D., "Kant, Boole, and the Origins of Peirce's Early Metaphysics"
Folder 7 Forster, Paul D., "The Unity of Peirce's Theories of Truth"
Folder 8 Foss, Jeffrey E., "The Logical and Sociological Structure of Science"
Folder 9 Falkenstein, Lorne, ed., Logic and the Workings of the Mind
Folder 10 "Faculty Psychology in Early Modern Philosophy," author unknown
Folder 11 Forster, Eckhart, "Is There a 'Gap' in Kant's Critical System?," 1985
Folder 12 Friedman, Michael, "The Metaphysical Foundations of Newtonian Science" (3 drafts)
Folder 13 Friedman, Michael, "Preface" (translation), 1986
Folder 14 Friedman, Michael, "Scientific Objectivity in Historical Perspective"
Folder 15 Friedman, Michael, "Kant on the Foundations of newtonian Science," 1984
Folder 16 Friedman, Michael, "Kant's Theory of Geometry," 1984
Folder 17 Friedman, Michael, "On the Transition from the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science to Physics," 1989
Folder 18 Friedman, Michael, "Poincare's Conventionalism and the Logical Positivists"
Folder 19 Friedman, Michael, "Kant on Concepts and Intuitions in the Mathematical Sciences," 1987
Folder 20 Giere, Ronald N., "On the Metaphilosophy of Science"

Box 22
Folder 1 Good, Gregory, "Method, Science, and the Historical Approach: Were John Herschel's Optical Researches Guided by His Ideas on Method?," 1983
Folder 2 Grier, Michelle Gilmore, "The Role of Transcendental Illusion in Kant's Account of Systematicity," 1993
Folder 3 Grimes, Thomas R., "Scientific Realism and the Problem of Underdetermination"
Folder 4 Gruender, David, "Values and the Philosophy of Science" in Developments in the Theory of Science, ed. Gerhard Preyer and Alexander Ulfia
Folder 5 Hanson, Norwood Russell, "An Anatomy of Discovery"
Folder 6 Hanson, Norwood Russell, "Logical Positivism and the Interpretation of Scientific Theories"
Folder 7 Harper, William, "Isaac Newton on Empirical Success and Scientific Method"
Folder 8 Harper, William, "Newton's Phenomena," 1996
Folder 9 Harper, William, "Newton, Isaac"
Folder 10 Harper, William et al., "Unification and Support: Harmonic Law Ratios Measure the Mass of the Sun" (2 drafts)
Folder 11 Harper, William, "Kant's Empirical Realism and the Second Analogy of Experience" (2 drafts + Butts' comments), 1980
Folder 12 Harper, William, "Kant on the A Priori and Material Necessity"
Folder 13 Harper, William, "Kant on Incongruent Counterparts," 1987
Folder 14 Harriot, Howard H., "R.A. Fisher and the Interpretation of Probability"
Folder 15 Heimann, P.M., "Force and Inertia: Euler and Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science"
Folder 16 Hintikka, Jaakko, "Wittgenstein's Semantical Kantianism"
Folder 17 Hughes, R.J.G., "Laws of Physics, Laws of Nature, and the Representational Account of Theories"

Box 23
Folder 1 "Inaugural Dissertation," author unknown
Folder 2 Jacquette, Dale, "Intentionality and the Myth of Pure Syntax"
Folder 3 Jobe, Evan, "Explanation, Causality, and Counterfactuals"
Folder 4 Juhl, Cory and Kelly, Kevin T., "Transcendental Deductions and Universal Architectures for Inductive Inference"
Folder 5 Kambartel, Friedrich, "Versuch uber das Verstehen"
Folder 6 Kitcher, Patricia, "Apperception and Epistemic Responsibility"
Folder 7 Kitcher, Phillip, "Projecting the Order of Nature" (3 drafts)
Folder 8 Kuehn, Manfred, "Kant's Conception of 'Hume's Problem'"
Folder 9 Kuhn, Thomas, "What are Scientific Revolutions" and "Commensurability, Comparability, Communicability"
Folder 10 Landry, Vicki Frappollo, "The Unconstituted Constitutor and the Essence of Poker"
Folder 11 Lariviere, D. Anthony, "On the Alleged Cartesianism of the Port-Royal Logic"
Folder 12 Laudan, Larry, "The Pseudoscience of Science?"
Folder 13 Laudan, Larry et al., "Testing Methodologies Against History," 1985
Folder 14 Laudan, Larry, "Science at the Bar: Causes for Concern"
Folder 15 "Locke and the Received View of Dreams," author unknown
Folder 16 Lugg, Andrew, "Resolving Disagreement in Science"
Folder 17 Lugg, Andrew, "Stuff and Nonsense: Pseudoscience as Madness"
Folder 18 Lugg, Andrew, Review of "My Philosophical Development" by Bertrand Russell
Folder 19 Majer, Ulrich, "Simplicity and Distinctness: The Limits of Referential Semantics," 1988
Folder 20 Matheson, Carl, "Observational Adequacy as Distinct from the Truth About Observables"
Folder 21 McMullin, Ernan, "The Rational and the Social in the History of Science"

Box 24
Folder 1 Melmer, Arthur, "Space Time and Thought in Kant"
Folder 2 Metcalfe, John, Critical Notice on Menachem Fisch's "William Whewell: Philosopher of Science," 1992
Folder 3 Meyer, Michel, "Why Did Kant Write Two Versions of the Transcendental Deduction?"
Folder 4 Mittelstrass, Jurgen, "Scientific Rationality and Its Reconstruction"
Folder 5 Montesano, Aldo, "Rationality in Economics: A General Framework"
Folder 6 Morrison, Margaret, "Whewell on the Ultimate Problem of Philosophy," 1996
Folder 7 Moulines, C. Ulises, "Structuralism vs. Operationalism"
Folder 8 Nickels, Thomas, "What Is a Problem that We May Solve It?," 1980
Folder 9 Niiniluoto, Ilkka, "Ernst Mach as a Philosopher of Science"
Folder 10 Okruhlik, Kathleen, "Kant on Realism and Methodology" (2 drafts)
Folder 11 Palter, Robert, "Kant's Idea of Absolute Space"
Folder 12 Peterson, Philip, "Theory and Meaning," 1968
Folder 13 Preyer, Gerhard, "The Received View, Incommensurability, and the Comparison of Theories - Beliefs as the Basis of Theorizing"
Folder 14 Preyer, Gerhard and Ulfig, Alexander, "Semantic of Theoretical Language, Meaningful Measurement, and the Concept of Physical Law"
Folder 15 Rescher, Nicholas, "Leibniz Finds a Niche (Settling in at the Court of Hanover: 1676-1677)," 1991
Folder 16 Rescher, Nicholas, "Meaningless Numbers," 1995
Folder 17 Resnik, David, "Scientific Rationality and Epistemic Goals"
Folder 18 Rosenfield, Arthur H. and Trower, W. Peter, "Selected Works of Luis W. Alvarez With Commentary"
Folder 19 Rothbart, Daniel, "The Semantics of Metaphor and the Structure of Science," 1984
Folder 20 Rothbart, Daniel, "Metaphor and the Growth of Scientific Knowledge"
Folder 21 Ruse, Michael, "A Philosopher's Day in Court: The Scopes Monkey Trial Revisited"
Folder 22 Schlesinger, Georg N., "Degrees of Characterization"
Folder 23 Schwartz, Robert, "Reflections on Projection"

Box 25
Folder 1 Shea, William, "Filled With Wonder: Kant's Cosmological Essay, the Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens" (3 drafts)
Folder 2 Skyrms, Brian, "Evolution of Anomaly"
Folder 3 Stafleau, Marinus Dirk, "Theories Incorporated"
Folder 4 Tang, Paul C.L., "On Paul Churchband's Treatment of the Argument from Introspection and Scientific Realism"
Folder 5 Tang, Paul C.L. and Hildebrand, Erik A., "The Scientist Qua Scientist Must Be an Anti-Realist"
Folder 6 Thagard, Paul and Holyoak, Keith, "Discovering the Wave Theory of Sound: Inductive Inference in the Context of Problem Solving," 1985
Folder 7 Tuschling, Burkhard, "Apperception and Ether: On the Idea of a Transcendental Deduction of Matter in Kant's Opus Postumum"
Folder 8 Unattributed Commentary on Butts' Work
Folder 9 Unidentified Typescript on Mach and Relativity
Folder 10 Van Kirk, Carol A., "Kant's Reply to Putnam"
Folder 11 Van Kirk, Carol A., "Kant and the Problem of Other Minds"
Folder 12 Van Cleve, James, "Reflections on Kant's Second Antimony," 1980
Folder 13 Wheeler, Harvey, "The Invention of Modern Empiricism: The Juridicial Foundation of Francis Bacon's Philosophy of Science," 1983
Folder 14 Will, F.L., "The Problem of Induction," 1968
Folder 15 Wilson, David B., "A Physicist's Alternative to Materialism: The Religious Thought of George Gabriel Stokes"
Folder 16 Wilson, Fred, "Mill on the Operation of Discovering and Proving General Propositions"
Folder 17 Wilson, Fred, "Explanation, Causation, and Deduction"
Folder 18 Wilson, Fred, "Scottish Reason from Hume and Reid to Brown and Chalmers"
Folder 19 Wimsatt, William, "Von Baer's Law of Development, Entrenchment, and Scientific Change"
Folder 20 Wolters, Gereon, "Visionary Positivism: Ernst Mach's Philosophy of Science"
Folder 21 Reviews of Gereon Wolters' Mach I, Mach II, Einstein und die Relativitatstheorie
Folder 22 Wray, K. Brad, "Rational Communities"
Folder 23 Wray, K. Brad, "The Role of Solidarity in a Pragmatic Epistemology"
Folder 24 Wylie, Allison, "Philosophy of Archaeology"
Folder 25 Unidentified Manuscripts

Subseries 5. Professional Correspondence, 1963-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

This subseries consists of general correspondence between Butts and his professional peers and colleagues. Material is arranged alphabetically by correspondent, including both individuals and organizations, and ranges from one letter to exchanges taking place over several years or decades, as with friend and colleague Jurgen Mittelstrass of the University of Konstanz.

Box 26
Folder 1 Adams, Stephen J., 1995-1996
Folder 2 Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, 1993-1995
Folder 3 Anderson, E.O., 1986
Folder 4 Baltas, Aristedes, 1992
Folder 5 Barcus, Nancy B., 1982
Folder 6 Bauer, Henry H., 1980-1986
Folder 7 Beck, Lewis W., 1985
Folder 8 Bentley, Margaret, 1974-1984
Folder 9 Belgvad, Mogens, 1972-1973
Folder 10 Brittan, Gordon, 1989
Folder 11 Broughton, Roger, 1982-1983
Folder 12 Buchdahl, Gerd, 1970-1989
Folder 13 Bunge, Mario, 1980
Folder 14 Bykov, A.N., 1981-1982
Folder 15 Carrier, Martin, 1987
Folder 16 Charpa, Ulrich, 1984
Folder 17 Coelho, Victor, 1988-1992
Folder 18 Cohen, H. Floris, 1993-1994
Folder 19 Cohen, Robert S., 1973-1993
Folder 20 Demopoulos, William, 1991
Folder 21 Duchesneau, Francois, 1981-1985
Folder 22 Earman, John, 1992
Folder 23 Falkenstein, Lorne, 1987
Folder 24 Finocchiaro, Maurice A., 1980
Folder 25 Fisch, Max H., 1980
Folder 26 Friedman, Michael, 1985
Folder 27 Gavreau, Claude, 1980-1986
Folder 28 Goudge, T.A., 1964
Folder 29 Greene, John, 1982
Folder 30 Grünbaum, Adolf, 1977-1995
Folder 31 Gumanski, Leon, 1974
Folder 32 Hacking, Ian, 1986
Folder 33 Hallden, Soren, 1973
Folder 34 Hintikka, Jaakko, 1975-1977
Folder 35 Hiorth, Finngeir, 1973
Folder 36 Hooker, Cliff, 1985-1988, 1994
Folder 37 Hoven, Adrian van den, 1996
Folder 38 Irvine, Andrew, 1982
Folder 39 Janich, Peter, 1983
Folder 40 Kaufmann, John C.E., 1997
Folder 41 Keenan, C.W., 1964-1966
Folder 42 Kendler, Howard H., 1980
Folder 43 Kitcher, Philip, 1983, 1996
Folder 44 Levere, Trevor H., 1980
Folder 45 Lloyd, Elisabeth A., 1983
Folder 46 Lugg, Andrew, 1985, 1992
Folder 47 Martell, Charles, 1997
Folder 48 Massey, Gerald, 1991-1994
Folder 49 Mayo, Deborah G., 1986
Folder 50 Mittelstrass, Jürgen, 1973-1978
Folder 51 Mittelstrass, Jürgen, 1979-1995

Box 27
Folder 1 Nicholas, John M. (Nick), 1989
Folder 2 Niiniluoto, Ilkka, 1985
Folder 3 Ohruhlik, Kathleen, 1989
Folder 4 Pagnini, Alessandro, 1991-1996
Folder 5 Parrini, Paolo, 1996
Folder 6 Paterson, G.R., 1984-1986
Folder 7 Rescher, Nicholas, 1963-1996
Folder 8 Robson, Robert, 1963
Folder 9 Ruse, Michael, 1982
Folder 10 Rutherford, Don, 1990
Folder 11 Sadovsky, Vadim, 1975-1982
Folder 12 Savage, Wade, 1983-1986
Folder 13 Savary, Claude, 1984-1986
Folder 14 Shea, William (Bill), 1977-1992
Folder 15 Stevens, Wesley, 1985-1993
Folder 16 Stone, John M.R., 1987-1988
Folder 17 Surette, Leon, 1982
Folder 18 Theau, Jean, 1974
Folder 19 Wahsner, Renate, 1991
Folder 20 Weiner, Dora B., 1983-1984
Folder 21 Wilson, David B., 1973
Folder 22 Westfall, Richard, 1972
Folder 23 Wolcott, Glenn, 1995
Folder 24 Wolters, Gereon, 1981-1995
Folder 25 Woolhouse, Roger, 1985-1988
Folder 26 Miscellaneous and Unidentified Correspondence, 1963-1996
Folder 27 Unsigned Fax from the University of Newcastle
Folder 28 Directory of Professional Contacts

Series III. Multimedia, 1972-1997

Scope and Content Notes:

The content of the materials in this series is mostly unknown, since they are largely stored on outdated multimedia formats that cannot currently be read by this department. The labels that Butts placed on his floppy disks, which appear to contain backups of his personal computer, indicate that some of the contents may be alternative drafts or supplemental materials to documents found in the paper portion of the collection (e.g. lectures, documentation from professional organizations). The most readily accessible materials are the audio cassette tapes, which mainly contain recordings of radio appearances that Butts made and dictated correspondence during the time of his hospitalization during the 1970s.

Box 28
Folder 1 Radio Appearances and Dictations (Audio Cassette Tapes), 1972-1987
Folder 2 ABC News Nightline: Exorcism (VHS Tape)
Folder 3 Exorcism 2 (Beta Tape)
Folder 4 PC Backups (3 Containers, 5 1/4" Floppy Disks)
Folder 5 PC Backups (2 Containers, 3 1/2" Floppy Disks)

Series IV. Oversized Materials, 1947-1994

Scope and Content Notes:

This series consists of oversized materials that have been separated from the collection proper for storage purposes. It contains a small number of documents, most of which are diplomas and certificates that are biographical in nature. The first document, the certificate from the Weigh-House at Oudewater, is from a historical site in the Netherlands where accused witches were weighed and certified as non-witches during medieval witch hunts, a subject of research interest in Butts’ later life.

Box 29
Item 1 Testimony of the Art of Weighing in the Weigh-House at Oudewater, the Netherlands, 1994
Item 2 Delta Phi Alpha National Honorary German Fraternity, Syracuse University, 1951
Item 3 Alexander von Humboldt-Sitfung Award, 1992
Item 4 Diploma of Robert Earl Butts, Philosophiae Doctoris, University of Pennsylvania, 1957
Item 5 Manheim Township High School Diploma, 1947